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Revealing ontological commitments by magic ... The ontology of a language or conceptual structure characterizes the set of entities that can exist and the kinds
S‐5 – Critical, radical and postcolonial geographies and cartographies from early approaches to present‐day debates (4 sessions, 21 participants)
four writers, to three keynote addresses, and they could choose from 125 papers ... Three fairly short authors! readings by Bernardine Evaristo,
Social-Economic, Political, Technology, and ... thrown at any company with a Dot.Com in its name. Instant millionaires became commonplace, politi- ... Real estate values went through the roof and affordable housing had all but disappeared. Then the D
Health-E-App within the Children’s Health Initiative. SANTA CLARA’S ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT According to a 1998 California legislative analyst report, Santa Clara County’s population is approxi-mately 1.76 million. The median price for a sing
One potential reason is signalling (providing selective information to present oneself in a positive light or to be seen in a certain way) and the benefit of this may outweigh the costs of possible privacy invasions for social network website users
Maimonides on the Creation of the World ... fundamental principle, then the Torah’s references to creation cannot be interpreted as affirming eternity
Selected Essays. Trans. J. Michael Dash. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia 1989: 142. 3 Edouard Glissant, Poetics of Relation. Trans. Betsy Wing
As If By Magic: World Creation in Postcolonial Children s Literature GRAEME HARPER
Sgt. Norman: Too many things to answer there. I'll try one at time. First, an Aboriginal friend told me the hand could have been worn as a good-luck charm. Quite common to wear part of a loved one around the neck or carry bones or a finger in a "charm bag." This was supposed to keep away evil spirits. G A R Y C R E W , Strange Objects
C H I L D R E N TODAY live i n societies characterized
not simply by difference but by a consuming passion for it. Likewise, they live i n a p e r i o d i n which they are more or less free to consume fictional a n d fantastic worlds n o t as forms o f difference situated within a homogeneous theological paradigm but rather as heterogeneous secular worlds, a n d to consume these enthusiastically wherever they find them. Adults i n Western society register their agreement with this philosophy o f ontological pluralism not least by encouraging early engagement with contemporary media forms, television, video, computer generated visual images a n d written text, a n d so o n ; such forms Jean Baudrillard has l i n k e d with the growth of the "hyperreal" ( 2 - 3 ) . Baudrillard's "hyperreal" is a world o f the reproduced real, the generation o f real "without origin or reality" ( 2 ) , which dissolves previous categories o f social theory into simulation models a n d codes. F o r Baudrillard, the hyperreal is exemplified i n the relationship o f Disneyland to the A m e r i c a which surrounds it. If, as B a u d r i l l a r d implies, the A m e r i c a n m o d e l has a paradigmatic influence o n Western c h i l d h o o d , then it is worth noting that a recent edition o f Parents Magazine listed under "Indoor Entertainment" for A m e r i c a n children "books, videos, software ARIEL: A Review of International English Literature, 28:1, January tgg7
packages and music recordings" ( 1 5 5 ) , and i n c l u d e d both an electronic replay of H o m e r ' s filiad, i n which M o r g a n the C h i m p takes o n the role o f Odysseus, and a book of poems by AfricanA m e r i c a n writer, Langston Hughes, described elsewhere as "perhaps the most significant black writer of the century" (Parker
55)It is tempting to agree with postmodernist theorists that the w o r l d of Western c h i l d h o o d is a world of superabundance, of disconnected images and signs, of intertextual references, pastiche, a n d eclectic nostalgia, fragmentary sensations, promiscuous superficiality, n u m b e d and flippant indifference, bricolage, and aleatory disconnection. A n d yet, it is no less true today that c h i l d r e n live i n a shared world of critically ordered sensory experience; that they are involved i n the passing on to others of knowledge gained about the natural and social worlds (which presupposes a shared meaning) ; and that they are encouraged to j o i n with adults i n the classification of the things o f the world (that is, to make identifications o f similarity and so o n ) . In fact, here is an ontology that is consciously progressivist and alerts c h i l d r e n to the c o n d i t i o n of adulthood, seeks authenticity i n the present and celebrates possibility i n the future, an ontology, w h i c h by this definition, has a modernist ethos. T h e dialectic between postmodernist pluralism and modernist futurism opens up any analysis of postcolonial children's fiction. C h i l d r e n ' s literature is, after all, both the literature of enfranchisement and literature for the disenfranchised. It is rarely written by c h i l d r e n and almost never published by them. F o r the writer, it provides access to the past as well as an opportunity to interpret an observed present, while for the c h i l d consumer (whether reader or listener), it is the literature of the experie n c e d present and, most significant, o f the yet to be experienced future. H o w similar these conditions are to the contextual history of colonial and postcolonial literature. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, colonialist or colonizing children's literature provided Western c h i l d r e n with access to the future New Imperialism explicitly promised. T h r o u g h the narratives of adventure stories, for example, British boys entered Africa alongside their fathers. As Patrick Brantlinger has pointed out,
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since imperialism always involved violence and exploitation and therefore never could bear much scrutiny, propagandists found it easier to leave it to boys to "play up, play up, and play the game" than to more mature, thoughtful types. Much imperialist discourse was thus directed at a specifically adolescent audience, the future rulers of the world. (209) Indeed, such literature helped to define "Europe (or the West) by offering contrasting image, idea, personality, [and] experience" (Said 1-2). N o doubt it is superfluous to m e n t i o n that this "contrast" involved the use of stereotypes, such as those of "African" c h i l d r e n presented i n H e l e n Bannerman's Little Black Sambo ( i 8 g g ) , Florence and Bertha U p t o n ' s The Adventures of Two Dutch Girls and Golliwog
( 1 8 9 5 ) , a n d Ellis Credle's Across the
Cotton Patch ( 1 9 3 5 ) , and the transposition o f E u r o p e a n literary attitudes onto non-European environments, invoking the Romantic n o t i o n of nature as an elusive metaphor such as i n the mysterious lives of May Gibbs's Snugglepot and Cuddlepie ( 1 9 1 8 ) or i n Jessie Whitfield's The Spirit of Bushfire and Other
Fairy Stories ( 1 8 9 8 ) , both o f which emphasize not only the irrational but the emotional dimensions o f the Australian bush. Finally, this contrasting o f image, idea, personality, a n d experience involved specific classifications and weightings o f story, theme a n d m o t i f — b o t h abrogation of local narratives and appropriation, i n varying degrees. T h e work o f Patricia Wrightson, from The Crooked Snake, published i n 1 9 5 5 and taking the form of a conventional adventure novel, to Journey Behind the Wind, part of a trilogy featuring the Australian A b o r i g i n a l hero W i r r u n , published i n 1 9 8 1 , provides historical reference to one author's changing understanding o f colonialism. O f course, these examples cut across both settler and invaded societies, for which the histories of displacement, denigration, constraint, alienation, transformation, and subversion are by no means singular. In fact, the rejection o f Eurocentrism involves, first, the recognition of the multiplicity of colonial experiences and, second, the realization that the definition "postcolonial" itself privileges E u r o p e a n settlement a n d invasion as the ontologica! foundation for non-European societies. Given these reservations, it is nevertheless possible to approach anti-colonialism, decolonization, and postcoloniality as
contemporary influences on Western children's literature. However, the word "postcolonial" is best used only as a m n e m o n i c shorthand for the many examples of cultural syncreticity, hybridization, ethnicity, and resistance that have entered Western children's literature i n the late twentieth century — though certainly not all by one route. "The post-colonial," after all, "is an openended field of discursive practices characterized by boundary and border crossings" (Pieterse a n d Parekh 11). For postcolonial societies, these boundary a n d border crossings are not the consequence of living i n an eclectic Disneyland, but the result of incorporating the modernist ethos of progressivism, the E n l i g h t e n m e n t ideals of freedom and equality, a n d the celebration of new or alternative histories. T o read postcolonial children's literature closely, it is necessary to acknowledge not the hollowness of the hyperreal, a reality that purports to be more than reality, but the complex cardinalship o f actual worldmaking. T h i s act of w o r l d m a k i n g helps to illustrate that children's literature is not a separate entity from adult literature but a component of the same cultural, linguistic, a n d conceptual matrix. "Worldmaking," Nelson G o o d m a n writes, "always starts from worlds already at hand; the m a k i n g is a remaking" (6). G o o d m a n ' s five processes—Composition a n d Decomposition, Weighting, O r d e r i n g , D e l e t i o n a n d Supplementation, a n d Deformation ( 7 - 1 7 ) — p r o v i d e an exemplary heuristic m e t h o d for approaching postcolonial children's fiction, because they rely o n an organic metaphor of emergence and fructification, an identifiable postcolonial trope. F o r example, two works of postcolonial adult fiction, Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children ( 1 9 8 1 ) and Ben O k r i ' s The Famished Road ( 1 9 9 1 ) , exemplify the five processes that G o o d m a n outlines. Interestingly enough, while Midnight's Children a n d The Famished Road are notworks for c h i l d r e n , they are works about c h i l d r e n . In both cases, the authors use the conceit of the uniqueness of a c h i l d b o r n at a particular time in history as a m e t h o d to take control o f history a n d give it shape. T h e time of birth is, of course, the arrival of national Independence. In O k r i ' s novel, A z u r o is a spirit c h i l d who moves through the "dreaded gateway" ( 5 ) , between the w o r l d o f "the fauns, the
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fairies and the beautiful beings" (4) and the world of fathers swallowed by holes i n the road and mothers dangling from the branches of trees ( 7 ) . In Rushdie's novel, Saleem Sinai, the narrator, j o i n s the c h i l d r e n "who were only partially the offspring of their parents—the c h i l d r e n of midnight (who) were also the c h i l d r e n of the time: fathered, you understand, by history" ( 1 1 8 ) . Midnight's
The Famished Road
internalized narratees to draw attention to the component features of postcolonial childhoods, to highlight and combine their distinctions and features into new complexes and make new connections. Exemplifying the act of composition and decomposition, their narratives are narratives of both an individualistic and a culturally holistic c h i l d h o o d . In a similar fashion, Margaret Atwood's novel Surfacing ( 1979) returns a young Canadian divorcee to her c h i l d h o o d home where, immersed i n c h i l d h o o d memories, she enters a mystical natural world from which she ultimately returns renewed. Nature here is not the elusive metaphor of the European Romantics but an attainable metaphysical foundation located i n c h i l d h o o d . Likewise, i n N u r r u d i n Farah's Maps ( 1 9 8 6 ) , the c h i l d Askar is possessed by strange qualities, "burdened by the violent and passionate world he lives i n and dispenser of wisdom and insight that only an adult should possess" ( 2 4 9 ) . T h e composition and decomposition of cultural events, the deletion and supplementation of accepted truths and historical facts, the weighting and ordering of narrative and stylistic forms — i t is through these that postcolonial societies, though disparate, acknowledge their role i n a shared world of critically ordered sensory experience. These are methods o f passing o n to others knowledge gained about the natural and social worlds of postcolonial life. Such classifications of similarity and, most important, of difference can be seen i n a n u m b e r of contemporary works of children's literature. "Everything is i n order, and numbered, just like history is supposed to be" ( 1 7 5 ) , writes Steven Messenger i n the conclusion of Gary Crew's novel for older children, Strange Objects ( 1 9 9 0 ) . Messenger's comment, of course, is heavy with irony. The ironic mode is predominant i n postcolonial literature (New
3 ) , and this form of declaration, a discourse between public history a n d self-identity, is identical to that which drives the novels o f Rushdie, O k r i , Atwood, and Farah. In Strange Objects, the disappearance of a fictional sixteenyear-old schoolboy named Steven Messenger is connected to the discovery of the underwater wreck o f a seventeenth-century D u t c h vessel, the Batavia, off the West Australian coast. T h e actual story o f the Batavia is one of the most horrific stories in Australian maritime history. T h e ship, with 3 1 6 passengers on board, 12 chests o f silver, and a priceless casket of jewels, was wrecked 4 0 miles from the Australian coastline. U n b e k n o w n to the captain, the supercargo (the officer i n charge o f the cargo) had already been p l a n n i n g to mutiny and seize the ship's treasure. After the captain departed i n search of help these mutiny plans were put into play, and Jeronimus Cornelisz, the leader of the mutineers, oversaw the m u r d e r and rape o f some 125 people, i n c l u d i n g many women and c h i l d r e n . Eventually, Cornelisz was outwitted, and he and his fellow mutineers were tried, sentenced and hanged. Before he was hanged, however, Cornelisz had both his hands cut off to signify his role as ringleader. Strange Objects begins with a report o n Steven Messenger's discovery of some highly valuable maritime relics—these i n clude "an iron pot (which became known as the 'cannibal pot'), a leather-bound j o u r n a l and a m u m m i f i e d h u m a n h a n d " (Crew 2 ) . O n a thematic level, Strange Objects places at the centre o f its narrative the dangers experienced by colonial pioneers, the attendant violence o f isolation, and the implicit suggestion that physical distance can produce moral displacement. M o r e than this, however, it links this same spatial and moral displacement with i m p l i e d violence bred i n the isolation of contemporary Australian settler society. Steven Messenger writes: I remember the time a client suicided in one of the motel rooms, slashed his wrists in the shower and bled to death on the bed. Katz got to know about that well before Sergeant Norman or the ambulance arrived. I happened to be in the Roadhouse Cafe (getting a Coke) when he came in and told me the body was there, and in which room. I had never seen a dead body. (73)
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This is not an overt political declaration such as we might find i n certain works o f South African children's fiction of the same period. F o r example, Strange Objects was published i n 1 9 9 0 , a year after Beverley Naidoo's Chain of Fire, which fictionalizes protests against the h o m e l a n d laws of Apartheid, and a year before N o r m a n Silver's An Eye For Colour, i n which Basil Kushenovitz, a white South African Jewish boy, examines the contrasts between the physical beauty of his country and the far less attractive political reality which confronts h i m . T h e concern of Crew's novel is not the decomposition and deformation of history but its supplementation, the b r i n g i n g into the present of the acts o f the past, an anachrony which can only work i f we challenge the weight and order of history's composition. A l l three of these works are postcolonial narratives from within settler rather than invaded communities; unlike the novels of N a i d o o and Silver, however, Crew's novel provides the added dimension of being an experiment i n narrative shape and form. T h e novel progresses through a series of Messenger documents; that is, the documents Messenger has previously collected into a project file and forwarded to Dr. H o p e Michaels at the Western Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology. These documents, or "messages," include not only newspaper clippings and Messenger's own narrative of events, but also transcripts of audio-tapes, reports prepared by Dr. Michaels, translations from the j o u r n a l of a young man who was on board the ill-fated Batavia when it ran aground, advertisements and quotations from books about shipwrecks, and even photocopies from a dictionary of legends and the supernatural, annotated with drawings by Messenger himself. W h i l e this might be a postmodern turn towards ontological insecurity, also at play here are epistemological questions concerning the knowledge o f past events, what k i n d of knowledge that might be, how it is acquired, and how that knowledge persists into the present. T h e driving force oí Strange Objects is not the destruction of truth or the sidelining of the real but an examination of the political as well as the textual character of the authenticity which surrounds the production and reproduction of fact. In the end, Crew's novel encourages the reader to believe that "Someone knows. . . . Somewhere" ( 1 8 8 ) . 1
The novel tacitly suggests that this someone might be a member o f the local, indigenous or invaded community. Indeed, postcolonialism frequently involves a dialogue between settler and invaded communities. As Pieterse and Parekh argue: The decolonization of imagination involves both the colonizers and the colonized. The decolonization of the Western imagination means reviewing Western horizons in the light of the collusion of empire and colonialism, and with the ongoing asymmetries of global power. (3) This asymmetrical global power is not necessarily confined to the economic; it can also be spiritual. In Glenyse Ward's autobiographical stories for older c h i l d r e n , Wandering Girl ( 1 9 8 7 ) , and the more recent Unna You Fullas ( 1991 ), this spiritual dialogue takes place between the sisters i n charge of an Australian A b o r i g i n a l mission and the mission children. Ward's mission children live a hybridized life i n which the Australian bush rings out with the yodelling of Swiss mission nuns. Sister Erika would tell us of her homeland, the Swiss Alps, and of snow. I understand how she must have felt when she stood on the rocks at the mission and yodelled for us. There must have been real longing for her home, and it would have seemed strange to her, having tall redgum trees, blue skies, singing birds and dark-skinned, snotty-nosed kids jumping up laughing and shouting for joy around her. (19) For Sprattie, the mission child, the irony here is not solely i n the recognition of the mutuality of colonial displacement, but i n the hybrid condition o f language. Speech and song, of course, are not realms of independent existence, but aspects of a multifaceted network o f social relations (McNally 1 4 ) . Sister Erika's songs ring out strangely over the rocks and gullies of outback Australia as Sprattie learns to rise each day to the sound of Sister Ursula's cow bell and to laugh at the M o t h e r Superior's comically accented English. Nevertheless, it is not the mission sisters' English which is unacceptable but the English of the mission children. As M r Pitts tells them: "Another word I do not want mentioned i n M r Foley's class or mine is the word 'unna.' What sort of language is that? A sort of language that has to be stopped" ( 1 1 4 ) . O f course, despite the strict routine of the
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mission, it is not stopped. Unna You Fullas i n fact means "Isn't that right, you fellows?" and this call to confirm fact, to engage i n epistemological discussion, to commit to worldmaking, not least through the subversion of colonial authority, reiterates that cultural hybridization does not lead to inauthenticity and that colonial destruction myths are ideologically spurious. T h e linguistic complexities o f m u c h postcolonial children's fiction are overtly indicative o f the conditions of polyglossia or diglossia, displaying an orality that suggests multiple entryways and multiple exits. Linguistic representation, however, is always learnt piece by piece, word by word and therefore, like the move from c h i l d to adulthood, suggests linearity. By way of comparison, it is worthwhile for us to consider how pictorial representation i n recent children's literature has dealt with the postcolonial condition. J u d i t h L e c h n e r has said i n her work o n the images of African Americans i n children's picture books that "because picture books send two images simultaneously, the impact they create on young c h i l d r e n is l o n g and lasting" ( 7 5 ) . Unfortunately, L e c h n e r is misrepresenting here the language of visual texts by compartmentalizing their reception into a binary. In pictorial representation, systems of language are learnt all at once and it is this fluidity, this totality, rather than a binary or duality, which is the starting point for a discussion o f two very different picture books for young readers: Peter Pavey's One Dragon's Dream ( 1 9 7 8 ) and Jeanie Adams's Going For Oysters ( 1 9 9 1 ) .
Once Dragon's Dream was published some 19 years ago, i n a p e r i o d i n which magical realism was reaching its peak (that is, with the award of the N o b e l Prize for Literature to the C o lumbian magical realist Gabriel G a r c í a M á r q u e z , i n 1 9 8 2 ) . Magical realism, o f course, combines the fabulous and the fantastic with the narratives of objective realism and originates i n the visual arts where it was applied to the mildly surrealist, smoothly painted pictures of figures and objects reminiscent o f the neoclassical art of Italian artists such as Felice Casorati. In literature, magical realism is characterized by "two conflicting but autonomously coherent perspectives, one based on an 'enlightened' and rational view of reality and the other on the acceptance of
the supernatural as part of everyday reality" (Chanaday 2 1 ) . Its popularity i n L a t i n A m e r i c a is "based around the idea that Latin American reality is somehow unusual, fantastic or marvellous because of its bizarre history, and because of its varied ethnological mark-up" (Swanson 4 ) . Accentuating the playful pictorial elements o f this mode, Australian author Peter Pavey presents a dream narrative i n which a phantasmagorical dragon, i n falling asleep, dreams o f "real" animals, some of which, by their frequent appearance i n children's literature, have become culturally non-specific (that is, turkeys, tigers, monkeys), and others, such as kangaroos, koalas, numbats, and flying foxes, which emblematize the Australian environment. A l t h o u g h One Dragon's Dream adopts the generic shape of a "counting book," Pavey continues the illustrations after the numerical text is complete and concludes metafictionally, with a picture of a window i n which the reader can observe characters from the dream disappearing from view. One Dragon's Dream is also a story o f incarceration: One dragon had a dream—that two turkeys teased him, three tigers told him off and four frogs seized him. Five cranky kangaroos hopped around and fenced him in. Six stern stalks tried and sentenced him. Seven slippery seals off to jail they juggled him. . . . (1-14)
Magical realists have made a point of acknowledging the influence o f European modernist experimentalism and the streamof-consciousness dream narratives associated with James Joyce, not least i n Ulysses with its search for psychic purity. In a connected way, Pavey's One Dragon's Dream presents complex, eclectic, and self-referential illustrations (often displaying the paints and brushes o f their own making), which exploit the calmness of European metaphysical painting i n order to exceed by far the linguistic parameters of the written text that accompanies them. Pavey's eventful, surreal illustrations don't "ward off the real world" ( H u n t 1 8 7 ) but reference the extra-textual dimension of postcolonial psychic unease (Ashcroft 1 4 8 ) , which itself is kinetic. This relationship between written and pictorial representation in Pavey's work can be fruitfully compared with that employed by 2
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Jeanie Adams i n Going For Oysters, set i n an A b o r i g i n a l community i n Queensland's Cape York Peninsula. In Going for Oysters, Adams's illustrations display a far higher degree of fluidity and a lack of linear definition; they depend more o n the written text for clarification. H e r breaking o f frame and line extend to the relationship between writer and reader. A t one point, the reader observes the A b o r i g i n a l community as i f floating i n the sky above it. In contrast, A d a m s uses a first-person narrative and a homodiegetic c h i l d narrator. T h e effect is to place directly into the child's world view the signs, symbols, and traditions of A b o r i g i n a l Australia. By frequently using her illustrations to re-position the mediation between narrator and i m p l i e d reader, Adams shifts a high degree of intimacy onto the written narrative. Significantly, the language of the written text i n Going For Oysters is colloquial, close, and casual. As i n Glenyse Ward's work, language serves as a place o f intersection between A b o r i g i n a l and English lexicon and syntax. B i l l Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and H e l e n Tiffin have suggested that "in one sense all postcolonial literatures are cross-cultural because they negotiate a gap between 'worlds,' a gap i n which the simultaneous processes of abrogation and appropriation continually strive to define and determine their practice" ( 3 9 ) . This argument for the n o t i o n of "a gap" between worlds is not supported by works such as Going For Oysters which depend o n a sustained dialectic within the same epistemological and ontological field, between linguistic enfranchisement and disenfranchisement, and which explicitly reference the relationship between c h i l d and adult world that is a progression or plot rather than a counterplot. T h i s is extended to the narrative itself as the c h i l d narrator both acknowledges and transgresses adult control and authority: We crept up on the pelicans. We dived into the water, making plenty of noise to frighten the crocodiles. We pretended we were in an oldtime skinbark canoe. And when it leaked we patched it up with sticky mud. After a while that got a bit boring. Cousin said, "Let's row to the east side." I forgot all about Grandad's warnings, and we all climbed into the dinghy and pushed off. ( 2 0 ) The act of w o r l d m a k i n g i n Going For Oysters is certainly, as Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin point out, the interconnected acts
of abrogation and appropriation. However, the importance of pictorial representation i n these acts is that it calls up the same recognitional capacities that c h i l d r e n use i n observing the real world. Performance and reception in pictorial systems, i n being naturally generative, is m u c h less rigid (Schier 2) than performance and reception in written systems and therefore is m u c h more closely l i n k e d with conditions of postcolonial oral literature that constantly crosses the borders and boundaries of communication, being grammatically intricate but lexically sparse, lacking solidarity and offering a mode of being i n process not product. In each of these works, the postcolonial world is one that is being made rather than one which is already established. It is certainly true that by designating any literature "postcolonial," imperialism becomes ontologically privileged. However, as a m n e m o n i c the term references a certain k i n d of worldmaking, one that involves definite processes of composition and decomposition, weighting, ordering, deletion and supplementation, and deformation. Postcolonial children's literature enters the media-saturated West through the global ethos of postmodernity. Its importance, however, is that the worlds it creates are, like c h i l d h o o d , evolutionary, celebratory, and inhabited by possibility.
N O T E S 1
B r i a n M c H a l e a r g u e s i n Postmodernist Fiction t h a t " t h e d o m i n a n t o f m o d e r n i s t fiction is e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l . H o w c a n I i n t e r p r e t t h i s w o r l d I a m a p a r t of? . . . T h e d o m i n a n t o f p o s t m o d e r n i s t fiction is o n t o l o g i c a l . W h i c h w o r l d is t h i s ? " ( 9 - 1 0 ) A c c o r d i n g to M c H a l e , p o s t m o d e r n i s t fiction, w i t h its r e c u r s i v e s t r u c t u r e , p r o f f e r s changes in ontological level, "changes o f w o r l d , " a n d emphasizes techniques o f e m b e d d i n g a n d n e s t i n g . T h i s as d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e s t r u c t u r e s a n d f o r m a l n o t i o n s o f m o d e r n i s t fiction. M c H a l e ' s a t t e m p t to c l e a v e m o d e r n i s m f r o m p o s t m o d e r n i s m o n t h e basis o f a r i f t b e t w e e n t h e o n t o l o g i c a l a n d t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l is a r b i t r a r y ( f a i l i n g t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t 'ways o f k n o w i n g ' a n d ' w h a t is k n o w n ' m i g h t b e c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f a h o l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y so t h a t s o l u t i o n s to t h e p r o b l e m o f m e t h o d a n d s o l u t i o n s to t h e p r o b l e m o f o n t o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n a r e p a r t s o f t h e same d i a l e c t i c ) . H o w e v e r , h e d o e s m a k e the significant p o i n t that the g a m e p l a n o f fiction o f t e n l a b e l l e d " p o s t m o d e r n " is to e m p h a s i z e a n d e x p l o i t m o v e m e n t : a c c e n t u a t i n g c o n t r a s t , issues o f p a r a l l e l i s m , i n t e r a c t i o n , a d d i t i o n a n d s u b t r a c t i o n bet w e e n d i f f e r e n t d i e g e t i c l e v e l s . P o s t - c o l o n i a l m a g i c a l r e a l i s t fiction is a l s o n o t a b l e for this.
AS IF B Y
2 G e r a l d M a r t i n writes: S i n c e m y v i e w is t h a t t h i s is t h e c e n t u r y o f J o y c e i n W e s t e r n l i t e r a t u r e , a n d t h a t t h e " U l y s s e a n " d e s i g n is e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t t o L a t i n A m e r i c a n fiction, t h i s c r i t i c a l j o u r n e y is o n e w h i c h r i s k s s h i p w r e c k at t h e h a n d o f b o t h t h e E n g l i s h literature traditionalist a n d L a t i n A m e r i c a n nationalists . . . not o n l y d o I believe that L a t i n A m e r i c a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t o f a " U l y s s e a n " fiction s p r i n g s l a r g e l y f r o m its writers' o w n e x p e r i e n c e , b u t I also believe that the L a t i n A m e r i c a n c o n t r i b u t i o n to M o d e r n i s m h a s b e e n d e c i s i v e i n its l a t e r e v o l u t i o n a n d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n First, S e c o n d a n d T h i r d w o r l d cultures. ( 129)
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