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United Nations Peacekeeping Missions Military/Combat Transport Unit Manual January 2016
Preface We are delighted to introduce the United Nations Military Unit Manual on the Military/Combat Transport Unit—an essential guide for commanders and staff deployed in peacekeeping operations, and an important reference for Member States and the staff at United Nations Headquarters. For several decades, United Nations peacekeeping has evolved significantly in its complexity. The spectrum of multi-dimensional UN peacekeeping includes challenging tasks such as restoring state authority, protecting civilians and disarming, demobilizing and reintegrating ex-combatants. In today’s peacekeeping operations, Missions are deploying into environments where they can expect to confront asymmetric threats and contend with armed groups over large swaths of territory. Consequently, the capabilities required for successful peacekeeping Missions demand ever-greater improvement. While deployed in the context of a political framework supporting a peace agreement, or in the context of creating the conditions for a return to stability, peacekeeping Missions may require the performance of dangerous tasks involving the judicious use of force, particularly in situations where the host state is unable to provide security and maintain public order. Under these circumstances, the Force Commander, as part of the senior Mission leadership, plays a crucial role in reaching the objectives set by the United Nations Security Council. Their success relies heavily on the support the Mission receives from its UN Military enabling units including the Combat Transport Unit. UN peacekeeping units are rarely limited to one type of activity and the tasks assigned to the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit demonstrate this point. To meet their complex peacekeeping challenges, military components constantly balance a wide variety of security and specialty tasks. In an effort to mitigate the risks therein, the deployment of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit provides the peacekeeping Mission the transport and logistical wherewithal needed to pursue the mandate’s success while sustaining essential daily operational requirements. As the UN continues its efforts to broaden the diversity of troop contributing countries, there is a vital need to formalize capability standards to ensure effective interoperability between UN military units. Together with the seminal work of military experts from numerous Member States, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the Department of Field Support have produced this Manual as a means of enhancing the preparation, operational readiness and efficiency of UN Military/Combat Transport Units. In recognition of the work already done, and in anticipation of future improvements, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to the Member States who volunteered and devoted so much of their time, energy and expertise in the creation of this Manual. The result is a document that captures and consolidates the relevant
dimensions of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit into a single, convenient reference. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the Department of Field Support will continue to refine and update this Manual ensuring its relevance in the ever-changing operational environment. In the meantime, we have every expectation that this document, especially with the concerted efforts of its intended readers, will contribute immensely to improving and enhancing our collective performance in the pursuit of peace.
Hervé Ladsous Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations
Atul Khare Under-Secretary-General for Field Support
Military experts of the UN Peacekeeping Missions Military/Combat Transport Unit Manual Working Group, Bangladesh 2014.
Purpose and Scope General Description This Manual describes the United Nations (UN) Military/Combat Transport Unit, a unique entity that comes into existence only when peacekeeping contingencies require military ground transport due to less permissive security environments, frequent relocation needs or difficult terrain. Under these conditions, the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit offers an alternative capability to accomplish the needed tasks. For example, if the UN’s logistics system needs reinforcement, the Military/Combat Transport Unit can be tasked to deploy its additional capacity in scalable and modular combinations. Moreover, if the Mission’s civilian (i.e., private contractor) ground transportation capacity is unable to reach certain areas due to difficult terrain or a restrictive security situation, the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit can provide transportation capability with assets able to reach otherwise inaccessible or dangerous locations. Benefit to Troop Contributing Countries Troop Contributing Countries (TCCs) and their deploying contingents will benefit from this document (as will their national military staffs, schools and units) as they become better able to support the reorientation of their Military/Combat Transport Units from national tasks to more fully integrated UN operations. TCCs experienced in peacekeeping operations can use this Manual to supplement and complement their national manuals. TCCs that are new to UN peacekeeping or UN Military/Combat Transport Units can use this Manual as a guide to build and field their own Military/Combat Transport Units. Nonetheless, it is not the intent of this Manual to override the national military doctrine of individual Member States or Troop Contributing Countries, nor is it the intent to impose requirements on national training, operations or structures. This Manual does not address those military tactics, techniques and procedures that remain the prerogative of individual Member States. Nor is it the intent of this Manual to serve as an instrument for UN Military/Combat Transport Unit selection. Indeed, UN Military/Combat Transport Unit structures will be adapted, ultimately, in accordance with the Statement of Unit Requirement (SUR) and Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) negotiated between the UN and Troop Contributing Country. Instead, this Manual serves as a complement to existing or emerging Troop Contributing Countries’ thinking on military capability and preparation for participating in peacekeeping operations.
Benefit to Commanders UN Military/Combat Transport Unit Commanders and their subordinate leaders will find in this document the guidance they need for planning, preparing and executing their assigned tasks. (See Annex A for a discussion of UN Military/Combat Transport and Logistics Operations Planning and Implementation Principles.) This Manual’s description of the UN’s integrated civilian and military logistics system will be informative for military personnel unfamiliar with UN operations. In the UN system, military enabling resources,1 like the Military/Combat Transport Unit, function as part of a Mission-wide logistics support network within a system where the civilian component has overall responsibility. Chapter 1 explains the concept of employing UN Military/Combat Transport Units within the integrated UN logistics system. It is not this Manual’s intent to cover the entire UN logistics system; only that portion that is directly related to UN Military/Combat Transport Units operating in field Missions. UN Military/Combat Transport Unit Commanders and staff can plan and manage their unit support requirements based on the guidance provided in Chapter 4, while Chapters 5 and 6 provide the training and evaluation guidance by which the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit can achieve and maintain top operational performance. Benefit to UN Planners In addition to being a guide for TCCs and their contingents, this Manual provides standardized guidance and information to UN Headquarters and field Mission planners on the employment of UN Military/Combat Transport Unit capabilities and functions. This Manual is designed for use as a reference and initial starting point for UN planners in developing the Statement of Unit Requirement that, together with the UN-TCC MOU, will form the basis for a UN Military/Combat Transport Unit deployment. UN planners will find most helpful the descriptions of capabilities, tasks and organization of a UN Military/Combat Transport Unit as they tailor the unit according to Mission requirements and the generic standards described in Chapters 2 and 3. Benefit to All This Manual is primarily written at the operational and tactical levels. It is based on UN guidance reflecting lessons learned, feedback from field Missions and input from peacekeeping practitioners experienced in UN Military/Combat Transport Unit peacekeeping operations. Workshops conducted by interested Member States and Troop Contributing Countries produced the original draft that was finalized after extensive coordination within DPKO and DFS. The result is a most comprehensive body of thought on UN Military/Combat Transport Units designed to assist contingents in reorienting their Military/Combat Transport Units towards interoperability in UN 1
The term, “military enabling resources,” is a Department of Field Support-preferred term specifically referring to military enabling assets (personnel and equipment) such as construction engineers, signals, aviation, transportation, medical and explosive ordnance disposal units or smaller elements that may be deployed in Mission-controlled tasks. See also the DPKO/DFS policy on Authority, Command and Control in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, (Ref. 2008.4) (February 2008).
peacekeeping. This Manual should be read in conjunction with other UN Manuals, especially the UN Infantry Battalion Manual, in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of UN standards, policies and procedures related to peacekeeping operations.2 Moreover, all aspects of the Mission concept can be more thoroughly studied in the UN Capstone Doctrine which, along with other important UN policy documents, is available at the following UN links: “Policy and Practice Database,” accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at: http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx and, "Resource Hub," recently developed for Member States to access UN documents including the Military Unit Manuals (such as this one) at: http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community.
The Infantry Battalion Manual, Volumes I and II, can be found at Policy and Practice Database , accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx or “Resource Hub”, developed for Member States at http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community
Contents Preface Purpose and Scope
Chapter 1. Employment Concept for the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit 1.1
Role of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
Differences Between the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit and the UN Military Logistics Unit
UN Military/Combat Transport Unit in the Force Headquarters Structure
Command and Control
Tasking Coordination Mechanism
2. Capabilities and Tasks of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit 2.1
Core, Scalable and Modular Asset Capabilities
Core and Scalable Capabilities and Tasks
Specialist Modular Capabilities and Tasks
3. Organization of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit 3.1
Combined Organizational Structure: Core, Scalable and Modular Assets
Core Assets of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
Scalable Assets of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
Modular Assets of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
3.6 Organizational Structures Tailored to the Threat and Mission Requirements
4. Support for the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit 4.1
The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit Commander’s Role
Major Engineering Support
Self-Sustainment of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
Sustainment Support for the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
Medical and CASEVAC/MEDEVAC Support
UN Headquarters Staff Support to the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
Wet and Dry Lease
Memoranda of Understanding
4.10 Letter of Assist 4.11 Pre-Deployment Visits 4.12 Status of Forces Agreement 4.13 National Support Elements
5. Training for the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit 5.1
UN Training Expectations, Standards and Support
Mission-Specific Training Requirements
Common UN Training Requirements
Specific UN Training Requirements
Military Training Recommended for Emphasis
6. Evaluation of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit 6.1
The Purpose of Evaluations
Mission Leadership Assistance
Annexes: A: Transport and Logistics Operations Planning and Implementation Principles B: Key Mission Leaders and Sections C: Generic Equipment Tables D: Evaluation Checklists E: References
Employment Concept for the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
1.1 Role of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit 1.1.1 The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit is a Force-level company- or battalionsize organization generated to provide medium and heavy lift transport support in Missions where the threat level creates a non-permissive environment requiring military capability. The existence of an active threat jeopardizing supply lines in the Mission area is a major factor in establishing the requirement for a UN Military Transport Unit or a Combat Transport Unit. Creation of these two types of transport units is primarily dependent upon the threat environment in the mission. In low to medium threat environments, where there is a requirement to reinforce mission support with military transport capabilities, a UN Military Transport Unit (battalion/company size) with a limited force protection capability (corresponding to existing threat levels) will be deployed to support mission logistics efforts. However, in high threat environments, a Combat Transport Unit will be deployed with dedicated and robust force protection capabilities that can ensure unhindered movement of mission military combat transport unit convoys. Indeed, some missions have developed the concept of hybrid transport units comprised of both military and civilian transport personnel and vehicles. See paragraph 1.5.6 below for a description of these hybrid transport units including their command, control and tasking. 1.1.2 The most prominent threat existing in some Missions is organized and opportunist armed attacks, as well as the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) on or around main supply routes. These threats are often beyond the capability of contracted civilian transport assets and prevent or delay the Mission’s ability to logistically sustain all its locations. UN Infantry Units in the Mission area may be required to concentrate their efforts on their primary tasks, such as the protection of civilians, and thus may not have sufficient capacity to provide logistics convoy escorts. Unlike its civilian transport counterpart, the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit can provide its own armed escort and road clearance capability. Road clearance is provided by the UN Combat Transport Unit’s integral combat engineers, Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and counter-IED capability. If the threat level exceeds the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit’s security/force protection capacity, the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit can operate as part of combined UN military operations involving other Force elements including infantry, combat engineers and military aviation. 1.1.3 Beyond the existence of non-permissive security environments, UN Military/Combat Transport Units are generated when Mission requirements demand 10
short-notice deployments before UN civilian transport contracts are in place, or when the necessary infrastructure for contracted support is still being developed in particularly remote and difficult terrain. Once the civilian transportation capability is established, the Mission’s Military/Combat Transport Unit’s functions may be reduced or re-tasked to other transport work. Alternatively, the unit may be retained in the Mission should the original non-benign conditions persist. 1.1.4 Retasking or other transport work may include supporting stability operations. When supporting stability operations, small, task-organized Military/Combat Transport Unit teams may be required to operate far from UN sources of support. Stability operations range from long-standing humanitarian and civic assistance Missions to major short-notice peace building Missions. Sustainment arrangements for these teams may include contracted services and support that significantly augment UN Military/Combat Transport Unit capabilities. Arrangements should be made during the mission planning process to ensure that these UN Military/Combat Transport Unit teams receive adequate force protection, as well as sustainment support, particularly in Missions with less than benign security situations. 1.2 Differences Between the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit and the UN Military Logistics Unit It is important to note that military/combat transport is a subset of military logistics. The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit and the UN Military Logistics Unit are not normally deployed at the same time in the same Mission. The UN Military Logistics Unit is a battalion size unit of standard core elements that has been explained in a dedicated manual, the United Nations Peacekeeping Missions Military Logistics Unit Manual. The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit is deployed when military capability is required to meet only transport requirements and the full capability of a UN Military Logistics Unit is not needed, or is being provided by civilian elements in the Mission. Readers are encouraged to compare and contrast the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit with the UN Military Logistics Unit by referring to UN Military Unit Manuals describing each unit.3 1.3 UN Military/Combat Transport Unit in the Force Headquarters Structure4 The fundamental role of the Force Headquarters is the command and control of the Mission’s military operations in support of the Mission’s mandate implementation. Regardless of the nature of the Mission, every Force Headquarters has common functions 3
Available at: Policy and Practice Database , accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx or “Resource Hub”, developed for Member States at http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community 4 This brief description of the Force Headquarters is for illustrative purposes. It is presented here to provide perspective on how Military/Combat Transport assets fit into the overall Force Headquarters structure. For more details on the Force Headquarters, see the UN Force Headquarters Handbook, available at Policy and Practice Database , accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx or “Resource Hub”, developed for Member States at http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community.
executed by functional groups, including the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit. A generic organization for the Force Headquarters is depicted below. The Logistics Staff, U-4 (shown in the red circle below) plan combat transport operations according to overall Mission priorities.
1.4 Command and Control UN Military/Combat Transport Units are under the Operational Control of the Force Commander/Head of Military Component. (See Annex B for a description of key Mission leaders and sections related to UN Military/Combat Transport Units.) In accordance with the DPKO/DFS Policy on Authority, Command and Control, UN Operational Control includes the authority to assign separate tasks to subordinate units of a contingent as required by the Mission’s operational necessities, in consultation with the Contingent Commander, and as approved by the Under-Secretary-General, Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The Force Commander/Head of Military Component is 12
authorized to assign military units under Tactical Control of a designated commander for specific purposes and periods. UN Tactical Control includes the detailed and local direction and control of movement or manoeuvers necessary to accomplish an assigned mission or specific tasks. 1.5 Tasking Authority and Coordination Mechanism The United Nations is required to maintain a complex mission support system that integrates military logistical support assets as well as in-house and contracted resources to provide logistical and other support to peacekeeping operations. On behalf of the Director or Chief of Mission Support (DMS/CMS), the Chief Supply Chain exercises tasking authority over transportation and movements units, including military transport helicopters and transport units within the peacekeeping mission. The tasking authority is exercised in a collaborative and cooperative spirit to ensure the achievement of mission operational priorities in support of the mission plan. 1.5.1 Consultative Coordination Mechanism UN Military/Combat Transport Unit tasking priorities are based on Mission-level priorities determined by the Senior Management Team, of which the Force Commander and DMS/CMS are members. Furthermore, in keeping with DPKO-DFS guidance to exercise tasking authority in a “collaborative and cooperative spirit,”5 UN Missions should use a consultative coordination mechanism that includes all components input to the overall prioritization of Mission transport requirements. UN Missions should establish standard operating procedures for such consultative coordination mechanisms governing the use of enabling units, such as the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit, to “ensure the achievement of Mission operational priorities in support of the Mission plan.”6 For example, UN Missions should hold regular (every two weeks) coordination meetings between the Force Commander and DMS/CMS, or their designated officials, to discuss and establish transport priorities consistent with the Head of Mission’s guidance for mandate implementation. The Force Commander and DMS/CMS may be assisted in these bi-weekly coordination meetings by their respective principal staff officers including, but not limited to, the U-4 (Logistics), U-5 (Plans), Chief Supply Chain Management, Chief of Mission Support Center, and, as appropriate, relevant UN civilian and humanitarian agencies such as the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Civil Affairs, UN Development Programme, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, etc.
DPKO/DFS policy on Authority, Command and Control in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, (Ref. 2008.4) (February 2008), paragraph 77. 6 DPKO/DFS policy on Authority, Command and Control in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, (Ref. 2008.4) (February 2008), paragraph 77 can be found at Policy and Practice Database , accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx or “Resource Hub”, developed for Member States at http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community
Tasking Coordination Mechanism for Mission- and Force-Level Military/Combat Transport Unit Tasks (see also the following diagram) Step 1. Mission Transport priorities are established by the Mission’s senior management, through submission by the Force Commander and Director or Chief of Mission Support, consistent with the Head of Mission’s guidance on mandate implementation. Sector-level transport requests would be submitted by the Force Commander (or his representative) for prioritization along with the rest of Mission requirements. Sector-level transport requests would be coordinated with MOVCON staff at Sector-level prior to consideration at Force- and Mission-level through the chain of command. Step 2. Based on these Mission-level priorities, daily tasking priorities are routinely determined by the Chief, Supply Chain Management under the delegated tasking authority of the DMS/CMS. Step 3. Building on these tasking priorities, transport tasks developed for Military/Combat Transport Units are coordinated with the Force Logistics Officer, U-4. Step 4. The Force Logistics Officer is the focal point for preparing UN Military/Combat Transport Unit Task Orders. Preliminary Task Orders are prepared consistent with Mission priorities, developed as described above, and include the details of the transport and security/force protection requirement and the task’s administrative/logistics aspects. Step 5. The preliminary Task Orders are coordinated with the Chief of the Mission Support Center for review and finalization. Step 6. Preliminary Task Orders are returned to the Force Logistics Officer (U-4) by the Chief of the Mission Support Center for Force and UN Military/Combat Transport Unit comment. The Force and UN Military/Combat Transport Unit’s comments and concerns are then taken into account in the finalization of the Task Order. Step 7. The finalized Task Order (covering the entire UN Military/Combat Transport Unit including any force protection and transport sub-units) is signed by both the Force Logistics Officer (U-4) (on behalf of the Force Commander) and the Chief of the Mission Support Center, who then sends it to the Chief of Supply Chain Management. Step 8. The Chief of Supply Chain Management sends the finalized Task Order to the Force Logistics Officer (U-4) for execution by the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit. Additional Note: In the rare case of some urgent, Mission-directed tasks to offset any shortfalls in civilian contracting and hasten Mission establishment (such as developing helicopter bases, Level II medical facilities, certain accommodation, logistics bases, etc.) tasking may come to the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit directly from the Chief of the Mission Support Center. However, prior to the tasking, the Chief of the Mission Support Center will have closely coordinated with the Force Logistics Officer (U-4). 14
1.5.2 Joint Budget Preparation As another example of this consultative coordination mechanism, Mission civilian and military transport/logistics staff should confer on transport budget preparation, developing budgets for scheduled and anticipated projects including possible emergency transport requirements. In such cases, the Chief of Supply Chain Management and Chief of the Mission Support Center, under the authority of the DMS/CMS (as the individual responsible for overall transport operations), works with the Force Logistics Officer (U-4 and Force U-5 (Plans) to identify transport requirements and plan the required funding. 1.5.3 Tasking Authority and Structure of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit The structure of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit, determined during the planning process, varies according to the threat level. The threat level is an informed judgement, and will influence the size and tasking for different functions within the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit. The following sections describe the tasking authority for the two categories of UN Military Transport Units found in field Missions: The first category of UN Military Transport Unit comprises an organizational structure designed for low to medium threat level environments. The second category of UN Combat Transport Units has a structure built for high threat level environments. The major difference between the two organizations is the force protection capability, and direct tasking authority over the security/force protection elements under the various threat levels. 1.5.4 Tasking Authority and Structure for UN Military Transport Units in Low to Medium Threat Level Environments Under UN Command and Control policy, military enabling resources such as the UN Military Transport Unit, fall under the direct tasking authority7 of the Director/Chief of Mission Support8 (DMS/CMS) and his/her duly designated subordinates. See the following diagram. UN Military Transport Unit daily tasking priorities are routinely determined by the Chief, Supply Chain Management under the delegated tasking authority of the DMS/CMS. Building on these tasking priorities, the Force Commander/Head of Military Component remains responsible for direct orders to the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit. This is done through the Force Logistics Officer (U-4) in the Force Headquarters who signs the military Task Orders (along with the Chief of the Mission Support Center) and identifies and assigns specific UN Military/Combat Transport Units to respond to the tasks. See the diagram in paragraph 1.5.1 for a detailed description of this tasking mechanism. This tasking mechanism allows the Mission to allocate its transport resources with maximum effectiveness and efficiency.
This tasking authority is codified in sections E.5 and E.6, paragraphs 68 to 74 of DPKO/DFS’s policy on Authority, Command and Control in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, (Ref. 2008.4) (February 2008). 8 Except when military enabling units are operating in direct support to military operations.
Command, Control and Tasking Authority UN Military Transport Unit in Low to Medium Threat Environments
1.5.5 Tasking Authority and Structure for UN Combat Transport Units in High Threat Level Environments The UN Combat Transport Unit in high threat level environments is designed as an organization whose elements are sufficiently large enough to function under more demanding requirements—particularly those requiring enhanced force protection. In a high threat level environment, direct tasking authority over the transport companies in the UN Combat Transport Unit remains with the DMS/CMS and his/her duly designated subordinates. All elements of the UN Combat Transport Unit, including the force protection company, are under the direct operational and tactical control of the Force Commander, thus ensuring military direction of UN Military Combat Transport force protection efforts when urgently responding to clear and present dangers. It is important to note that the UN Combat Transport Unit is not being tasked by two different authorities. Tasking authority is solely with the DMS/CMS. Tasking details are the product of a combined effort involving the DMS/CMS, his/her duly designated officials and Force Headquarters U-4, who represents the Force Commander and is the military focal point for all tasks going to the UN Combat Transport Unit. This arrangement ensures mission-level prioritization of transport tasks (by the DMS/CMS), while fulfilling the Force Commander’s responsibility to maintain operational and tactical control over military units as they execute those tasks. See the diagram on the following page and Chapter 3. 1.5.6 Hybrid Transport Units Some missions have developed the concept of hybrid transport units comprised of both military and civilian transport personnel and vehicles. For these hybrid units, the process of command, control and tasking remains unchanged from that in the low to medium or high threat environments: Hybrid transport unit tasking priorities are based on mission-level priorities as determined by the mission’s Senior Management Team. Direct tasking authority resides with the DMS/CMS and his/her duly designated subordinates. Operational and tactical control of the hybrid unit as it carries out its tasks is under the Force Commander/Head of Military Component and delegated to subordinate commanders. The Force Commander/Head of Military Component exercises operational or tactical control of movement/manoeuver as necessary for the hybrid unit to complete its mission-level tasks. The assignment of transport tasks to specific UN hybrid transport units is done through the Force Headquarters U-4. See paragraphs 1.5.1 and 1.5.4 above.
Command and Control and Tasking Authority UN Combat Transport Unit in High Threat Environments
Chapter 2 Capabilities and Tasks of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
2.1 Core, Scalable and Modular Asset Capabilities 2.1.1 The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit is a purpose-built organization with capabilities tailored to specific Mission requirements. Core UN Military/Combat Transport Unit capabilities and their associated tasks (many of which are required for its own benefit) include transport, supply, maintenance, support and security/force protection operations. Additional UN Military/Combat Transport Unit capabilities associated with increased quantities of these core asset capabilities are known as scalable assets. Any unique, specialist capabilities that are added to the core capabilities are known as modular assets and would be included to meet specific Mission requirements (see the organization charts in Chapter 3). Modular specialist transport requirements are considered in the Mission planning process and specialist units with those capabilities may be requested from Troop Contributing Countries. See Chapter 3 for further illustration of the Core, Scalable and Modular Transport Unit assets, including designation of those intended for the Transport Unit’s self-benefit as opposed those that are needed to meet Mission requirements. 2.1.2 DPKO and DFS at UN Headquarters perform extensive transport and logistics planning before arriving at the ultimate composition of a UN Military/Combat Transport Unit. Such planning ensures a suitable transport capability is employed in a cost effective manner. Troop Contributing Countries are identified as early as possible, including their likely roles and tasks, permitting them to commence their own planning and preparation. 2.2 Core and Scalable Capabilities and Tasks 2.2.1 Command and Control Capabilities and Tasks The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit:
Provides command and control for all elements under its command.
Provides real-time tracking of assets in transit to support the establishment of a Mission-wide logistics common operating picture.
Self-sustains in tactical communications, radio and telecommunications systems maintenance support. Staff should include interpreters in accordance with Mission and contingent requirements.
Maintains flexibility and is ready to redeploy temporarily or permanently to other locations within the Mission area of operations to support specific tasks in response to the Mission’s changing security and humanitarian situation.
2.2.2 Transport Capabilities and Tasks The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit:
Moves goods9 and personnel10 throughout the Mission area of responsibility, focusing primarily on transportation from the Mission logistics hub and/or main personnel arrival areas to the Mission Sectors and sub-Sector locations throughout the area of responsibility, including to and from Mission offices and military unit/sub-unit locations.
Assists in the redeployment of troops by providing limited transport capability as and when tasked and resources permit.
Provides flexible movement of goods and personnel without being tied to highly developed terminal facilities.
Generally operates using transport vehicles with limited cross-country mobility, and thus requires an adequate road system the construction and maintenance of which may require engineering effort.
Is vulnerable to air or ground attack but that risk can be reduced by security/force protection escort, increased situational awareness through the use of miniUnmanned Aerial Systems, concealment and dispersion techniques.
Moves containerized and loose cargo; primarily consisting of dry food stuffs, defence stores, engineer plant and equipment and other administrative/logistical consumables. Uploads, downloads and moves 20’ International Organization for Standardization (ISO) containers weighing up to 15 metric tonnes depending on the Mission requirement, but weight may be limited if so required.
Provides medium and heavy lift focusing on the movement of 20’ ISO containers, ideally using self-loading trucks. (See Annex C for specific equipment lift capabilities.) Trucks can be equipped with Palletized Loading System (PLS), Demountable Rack Offload and Pickup System (DROPS), Hook-lift platform or
Including refrigerated food items. The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit typically provides troop lift capability above that of deployed Sector military elements. Troop lift may be via bus or truck (with appropriate canopies and seating) depending on Mission requirements. 10
other designs for transporting 20’ ISO containers with integral securing mechanisms such as locking pins.
Provides and operates heavy lift capability (such as flatbeds) and Material Handling Equipment in limited quantities (including cranes/forklifts, PLS, or similar equipment capable of loading and unloading 15 metric tonne 20’ ISO containers at each team site) for essential Mission requirements including its own internal needs.
Sometimes provides limited transport for oversized vehicles and cargo capable of handling 40’ ISO containers should the need arise.
Conducts long distance convoy operations, operating with both driver and codriver, if necessary, to maximize distances per day and provide extra security.
2.2.3 Supply Capabilities and Tasks The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit:
Receives, stores and distributes goods and materiel including UN- and contingentowned goods.
Provides a 5 metric tonne rough terrain forklift for movement of limited cargo at each UN Military/Combat Transportation Unit team site.
Manages its own general and technical supplies.
Stores, safety tests and accounts for its own rations (perishable, non-perishable and emergency as well as stock reserves).
Manages its own petroleum, oils and lubricants.
Provides fire fighters for its own fire response.
2.2.4 Maintenance Capabilities and Tasks The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit provides for itself:
On-site vehicle repair.
Vehicle recovery, including recovery of heavy trucks and military armoured personnel carriers.
Emergency vehicle maintenance service, and storage of maintenance and repair spare parts.
Mobile curbside refuelling and workshop vehicles capable of operating over extended ranges of up to 1000 kilometres.
Skilled drivers, mechanics, technicians and operators for its own use to integrate its mobile repair teams, recovery assets, fuel and medical support operating with the logistics convoys. Drivers should be capable of operating more than one type of vehicle to compensate for any driver and other personnel shortages.
Preventive maintenance and serviceability awareness.
2.2.5 Support Capabilities and Tasks The following support capabilities are provided for the benefit of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit itself. The Military/Combat Transport Unit provides its own:
Minor engineer works.
Medical Level 1 support. Medical Level 1 capabilities must correspond to the Transport Unit’s organization, and the number of convoys it is required to generate simultaneously.
On-site repair and maintenance of self-sustainment equipment.
Laundry and cleaning services.
2.2.6 Security/Force Protection Capabilities and Tasks Regardless of threat level, all Force units are responsible for their compound security. In a low to medium threat level organization, the UN Military Transport Unit has a platoon size security element for this task. However, in the case of a high threat level organizational structure, the battalion size UN Combat Transport Unit has its own Force Protection Company, augmented, as required, by additional modular and scalable elements. This Force Protection Company strengthens its compound force protection and gives it the capability to assume convoy force protection tasks. If adequately resourced, the Combat Transport Unit can also provide its own road search and clearance capability by adding combat engineers, counter-mine and improvised explosive device search and detection, and explosive ordnance disposal assets. 2.3 Specialist Modular Capabilities and Tasks In contrast to scalable assets that are primarily additional capacity of the same core capabilities, modular assets can provide specialist capabilities that are not otherwise 23
present in the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit or elsewhere in the Mission (as there may not be a UN Logistics Unit). Specialist modular capabilities and tasks can be provided by military, the host nation or contractor sources and may include, but are not limited to, the capacities provided by:
Movement Control Team specialists.
Mini-Unmanned Aerial Systems specialists (particularly in the case of a high threat level).
Explosive Ordnance Disposal, Counter-Mine and Counter Improvised Explosive Device specialists (particularly in the case of a high threat level).
Specialized recovery personnel and equipment.
Specialized maintenance support personnel and equipment for armoured vehicles and plant equipment.
Maintenance advisory services.
Bulk fuel handling specialists.
Water transport personnel and equipment.
Organization of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
3.1 Organizational Considerations The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit comes into existence only when Mission-specific contingency demands military transport capability in response to existing or anticipated needs (informed by threats, difficult terrain and other Mission requirements). The generic organizational structures presented in this chapter are intended as planning baselines. The organization actually deployed is always Missiontailored, scalable in size and modular in function, depending on the size and composition of the UN Mission to be supported and the unique characteristics of the Mission area. 3.2 Combined Organizational Structure: Core, Scalable and Modular Assets The combined structure of a generic UN Military/Combat Transport Unit (see diagram below) consists of core, scalable and modular assets. Descriptions of core assets, unless otherwise noted in this chapter, are common to both company and battalion-size UN Military/Combat Transport Units. Scalable and modular assets are not standardized as their size and function depend on specific Mission requirements. Correspondingly, the generic tables of equipment at Annex C illustrate different requirements based on varying sizes of UN Military/Combat Transport Units. These tables of equipment are provided to illustrate the different types and quantities of equipment required for similar functions in different UN Missions. Only careful transport and logistical analysis and planning can determine the equipment types and quantities most appropriate for any particular Mission. The core, scalable and modular components of the following generic structure will be examined in turn.
Generic UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
3.3 Core Assets of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit The core assets of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit include the essential elements of contingency transport support: transportation, supply, maintenance, support/self-sustainment and security/force protection. A brief description of the major sub-units follows.
Core Assets UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
3.3.1 Transport Sub-Unit The Transport sub-unit is responsible for the movement of stores, equipment and personnel. Transport sub-unit elements enable the other Supply Chain Management providers to deliver their support and operate throughout the Mission area. 3.3.2 Supply Sub-Unit The Supply sub-unit can conduct provisioning, warehousing, salvage, disposal and supply control activities concerned with the distribution of food, field rations, bottled water, fuel, UN equipment spare parts and related services required to equip, operate and help sustain the UN Mission, especially in the absence of a UN Logistics Unit. 3.3.3 Maintenance Sub-Unit Maintenance support (provided for the benefit of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit) includes materiel maintenance, maintenance engineering, vehicle recovery (for larger requirements, vehicle recovery may sometimes be a separate subunit) and configuration management to ensure that its equipment is functioning correctly. 3.3.4 Support/Self-Sustainment Sub-Unit The Support/Self-Sustainment sub-unit provides the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit the self-sustainment it needs to operate including catering, minor engineer works, Medical Level 1 Facility, on-site repair and maintenance, personnel/administrative services, communications/information technology and laundry/cleaning. Medical Level 1 support must be task organized in accordance with the number of convoys the Transport Unit can generate simultaneously. At least one Medical Officer with requisite paramedic staff, ambulance and other medical equipment must accompany each convoy. 3.3.5 Security/Force Protection Sub-Unit The Security/Force Protection sub-unit provides the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit’s compound security. If adequately resourced (particularly in a high threat environment), it can provide convoy escort force protection using capabilities not found in a standard UN Transport Unit including, but not limited to, counter-mine and improvised explosive device road search and detection/clearance capability operating from mine protected vehicles using electronic countermeasures equipment. This sub-unit may have its own combat and cargo transport capability to move its own or other military personnel and equipment in accordance with operational requirements. It can also serve as a reserve convoy. In high threat level situations, the Security/Force Protection subunit may be augmented by additional modular and scalable assets such as combat engineers, explosive ordnance disposal and miniature Unmanned Aerial Systems to prevent ambush and increase situational awareness.
3.4 Scalable Assets of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit The size of core UN Military/Combat Transport Unit assets is referred to as the “scale” of transport assets. Scale depends on the size of the Mission being supported, size and characteristics of the area of operations, availability and suitability of nonmilitary service providers and specialization of the transport elements in the UN Mission. For example, a UN Force operating in a geographically dispersed area of operations with lengthy lines of communication requires a sizeable logistics tail to meet its support requirements. Other scale considerations may include the presence of armoured or aviation assets in the Force that consume large quantities of fuel in the performance of their duties; or the fact that certain environments may be prone to flooding or are influenced by river systems that require amphibious assets, water transport, aviation assets and bridging. Each of these operational factors will influence the transport organization and scale of resources required. The following diagram illustrates some of the scalable assets that may be considered. The asset list under each category is by no means exhaustive.
Scalable Assets UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
3.5 Modular Assets of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit Beyond the core and scalable UN Military/Combat Transport Unit assets, modular assets provide additional functionality. During the planning process, the extent and nature of additional modular support capability must be accurately assessed so that UN Military/Combat Transport Unit assets are properly scoped to support the required Mission effort. Modular assets frequently require specialists to operate and maintain, and may be resource-heavy and expensive to acquire and sustain. However, modularity provides planners the flexibility to add or delete capability, as required. For example, the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit’s Medical Level 1 Facility could be augmented with additional doctors and medical specialists, or its Maintenance sub-unit could be augmented with heavy armoured vehicle recovery specialists and equipment. Specialist modules can be military, host nation or contractor provided. Modular assets therefore require careful planning consideration to ensure they are available when needed. Modular assets include, but are not limited to:
Modular Assets UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
3.6 Organizational Structures Tailored to the Threat and Mission Requirements The following diagrams illustrate options for a UN Military/Combat Transport Unit serving in a Mission with a large area of responsibility and varying threat levels. The first organizational structure is for low to medium threat level environments. The second structure is for high threat level environments. As mentioned in Chapters 1 and 2, the major difference between the two organizations is the self-protection capability of the unit(s). 30
Generic Organizational Structure UN Military Transport Unit for Low to Medium Threat Environments
Generic Organizational Structure UN Combat Transport Unit for High Threat Environments
Chapter 4 Support for the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
4.1 Support Expectations The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit is expected to meet the standards of selfsustainment according to the terms of the Statement of Unit Requirement, UN-TCC Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and Contingent-Owned Equipment (COE) Manual. The deploying UN Military/Combat Transport Unit is also required to have and maintain the necessary resources and personnel to support itself administratively and logistically for the duration of the Mission (apart from where supplemented by the UN). To avoid having troops arrive unprepared to sustain themselves or their operations, TCCs and their contingents must be clear on what support will be provided by the UN, and what support they must provide for themselves. The specifics of what to expect are provided in key documents such as the Statement of Unit Requirement and any MOU or Letter of Assist signed by the UN and respective Troop Contributing Country. It cannot be over-emphasized that special attention must be given to the detailed requirements for rations, water, shelter, medical support and supplies. 4.2 The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit Commander’s Role Before deploying to the UN Mission’s operational theatre, the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit commander must ensure that he/she can deploy, sustain and regenerate his/her unit. The commander should consider the implications of casualties, consumption, materiel losses and resupply lead time; and then plan, allocate and balance resources accordingly. A UN Military/Combat Transport Unit commander should also evaluate the risks to, and security of, his/her sustainment equipment and capabilities, communication nodes and links; and adapt his/her plan to reduce the impact of unavoidable constraints on the resources readily available. The commander should carefully consider UN and TCC guidelines for determining further sustainment requirements and raise any concerns to the appropriate higher authorities. 4.3 Major Engineering Support Before deployment, UN-TCC negotiations should include any UN Military/Combat Transport Unit requirement for major military engineering such as vehicle parks and physical barriers for force protection. Early identification of major engineering requirements is essential to reach full operational capability as soon as possible, especially when UN Military/Combat Transport Units are establishing their facilities in new locations. Major military engineering tasks are a Mission responsibility and included in the Mission’s master engineer plan. 33
4.4 Self-Sustainment of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit When the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit arrives in the Mission area it is responsible for meeting all its own needs for rations, water, petrol, oil, etc. for up to 90 days, depending on the terms of the MOU and Statement of Unit Requirement. Typically, equipment is deployed for the duration of the Mission while troop rotations occur every 12 months. Subject to MOU negotiations, the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit may be required to self-sustain in the following areas:
Catering Communications11 Office Electrical Minor engineering Explosive Ordnance Disposal12 Laundry and cleaning Tentage (see immediately below) Accommodation Water treatment o Initial Accommodation: The UN Mission will prepare green field sites under austere conditions at the deployment location. The contingent will need to deploy with sufficient accommodation to provide for personnel, storage, offices, ablutions and workshops, etc. Water sources will be arranged by the UN Mission; the contingent will deploy sufficient water purification units and storage capacity to produce and consume its own purified water. The Mission will provide Field Defense Stores (FDS) and additional FDS kits for use in mobile operations. o UN-Provided Accommodation: The UN Mission will strive to provide rigid or semi-rigid accommodation after the initial six-month period in ContingentOwned Equipment tentage; failing which the UN Mission will pay a penalty rate of reimbursement until suitable accommodation can be provided in accordance with the COE Manual. o Deployable Accommodation: The contingent must deploy with a sufficient quantity of tentage necessary for short-term operational and tactical deployments.
All internal communications (including line and radio) within a contingent are a TCC responsibility. Contingents should come with suitable equipment for their internal communications establishing contact from their highest contingent headquarters to their respective countries and each of their subordinate Sections, Teams, Detachments, Companies and Battalions. TCCs are also responsible for providing email and Internet access for personal or welfare purposes. The UN provides only strategic communications support between the Mission, Force and Sector Headquarters; and subordinate units of the Sector that are not organic to that Sector Headquarters, such as Battalions provided by another TCC and independently deployed units. TCCs are also responsible for providing email and internet access for personal or welfare purposes. 12 For the UN military unit camp’s internal area only. Does not apply to mine clearance activities.
o Tentage Structure: Tentage must include flooring and the ability to heat and cool as appropriate; and netting at doors, windows and the inner/outer fly of tents. Double-layered tents with metal pipe frames are recommended due to conditions in the field. It is also recommended to mount the tents on cement or wooden foundations to ensure their stability. Deployable accommodations noted in the paragraph above are excluded from this requirement.
Basic fire-fighting equipment Fire detection and alarms Medical: observation and treatment identification Defense against Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Weapons (CBRN)13 Field defense stores Miscellaneous general stores Internet access Unique equipment Welfare items
4.5 Sustainment Support for the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit 4.5.1 Sustainment support for UN Military/Combat Transport Units is coordinated through the Sector14 and Force Headquarters. The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit must therefore liaise with both the Sector and Force Headquarters logistics structure (DCOS Operations Support, U-4 LOG, U-1 PER), as well as the Mission’s Office of the Director/Chief of Mission Support and his/her duly designated subordinates. Operations planning will determine the specific logistics requirements and the associated logistics command and control structures for each operation when the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit is committed. Following the initial period of self-sufficiency and in addition to TCC support obligations to their deployed contingent, all other UN Military/Combat Transport Unit life support and operational requirements are satisfied by the Mission’s Director/Chief of Mission Support through the Office of the Chief, Supply Chain Management. 4.5.2 The UN provides the following items and services:
Food rations (storage, cooking and sometimes transportation are a contingent responsibility)
To date, UN peacekeepers have not been subjected to a nuclear or biological warfare environment. However, they have had to work in a chemical warfare environment. It is therefore important that some elements of the CBRN threat be covered in training to include the characteristics, symptoms, precautions and use of protective clothing and detection monitoring equipment for all types of CBRN threats. If time is constrained, military units should concentrate on detection of and protection from chemical weapons. –United Nations Peacekeeping Training Manual, Training Guidelines for National or Regional Training Programmes, undated, page 28, published by DPKO: can be found at Policy and Practice Database , accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx or “Resource Hub”, developed for Member States at http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community 14 When attached in support of the Sector.
Bulk raw water (or access to bulk raw water). transport, purification and storage.)
Bulk fuel (TCCs may be responsible for transport and storage.)
Strategic movement of Contingent-Owned Equipment and personnel from the home country to the Mission area of operations
Main supply route, road/other infrastructure upkeep and mine clearing. Minor engineering and routine upkeep is a TCC responsibility. (Readers should consult the COE Manual and applicable MOU for further guidance.)
Blood and blood products
Interpreters. Based on operational need, military units use military and/or civilian interpreters provided by their TCCs, or locally-employed interpreters who are normally contracted and provided by the Mission’s Director/Chief of Mission Support.15
Casualty Evacuation/Medical Evacuation (CASEVAC/MEDEVAC)16 transportation and support for movement of sick and wounded personnel to appropriate medical facilities.17
(TCCs are responsible for
4.6 Medical and CASEVAC/MEDEVAC Support 4.6.1 Medical Capability UN Military/Combat Transport Units typically deploy with their own integral Level 1 Medical Facility. Higher levels of medical support are a Mission responsibility provided through CASEVAC/MEDEVAC. Each UN Military/Combat Transport Unit (company or battalion equivalent) must deploy elements within the Mission area with an attached and dedicated medical team, consistent with the requirement and number of convoys the Transport Unit can generate simultaneously. Each convoy must be provided at least one Medical Officer with the necessary medical staff, equipment and ambulance. 4.6.2 CASEVAC/MEDEVAC Planning and Training
UN Infantry Battalion Manual, DPKO-DFS, August 2012, Volume II, Annex G, pages 274-275. Casualty Evacuation (CASEVAC) entails the evacuation (by air or land) of a casualty from the site of injury to the closest medical facility. This category of patient transfer shall be conducted within 1 hour of injury. Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) entails the evacuation of a casualty between two medical facilities; either within the Mission area (in-theatre) or out of Mission area. MEDEVAC should be conducted depending on the medical urgency. See the newly-revised UN Medical Support Manual, 2015, Chapter 10, paragraphs 9.a. and b. 17 For comprehensive guidance on medical operational, logistical and administrative guidelines for Member States, UN Headquarters and field Missions, consult the Medical Support Manual for United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, can be found at Policy and Practice Database , accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx or “Resource Hub”, developed for Member States at http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community 16
During the planning phase of each operation, special attention must be given to available integral, Force and Mission CASEVAC/MEDEVAC capabilities, procedures18 and coordination with the appropriate staff officers at Sector or Force/Mission Headquarters. UN Mission MEDEVAC/CASEVAC assets and Mission Medical Facilities will provide additional transportation/medical support and should train with the Mission’s Military/Combat Transport Unit. Each unit is responsible for the provision of a “10 minute” initial response/“buddy first aid” to their personnel. Training is to be conducted as part of pre-deployment preparations in the home country. CASEVAC/MEDEVAC training is aimed at interoperability with enablers, including medical, aviation, transportation and other Force elements such as the Quick Reaction Force. When aerial CASEVAC/MEDEVAC assets are not available or appropriate, alternate CASEVAC/MEDEVAC may be arranged using their own, Mission assets and Mission SOPs. UN Military/Combat Transport Unit CASEVAC/MEDEVAC typically involves UN Military/Combat Transport Units making use of all available Sector, Force and Mission capabilities. 4.7 UN Headquarters Staff Support to the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit 4.7.1 The Department of Field Support (DFS) at UN Headquarters provides dedicated support to peacekeeping field Missions in the areas of financial reimbursements, logistical support services, communications and information technology, human resources and general administration to help field Missions. Support is delivered to field Missions and TCC contingents by DFS to the respective Mission through Mission Directors/Chiefs of Mission Support and their subordinate staff. 4.7.2 Equipment for communications between the Mission, Force or Sector Headquarters and the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit is provided to the Transport Unit by the UN as UN-Owned Equipment (UNOE). This ensures that the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit has secure, standardized military-grade communications within the Force and Mission’s communications network. The UN Military/Combat Transport Unit’s internal communications is a TCC responsibility. A contingent’s internal communications and information systems include all line and radio communications from a contingent’s highest headquarters down to its lowest subordinate element. 4.7.3 The determination of financial reimbursement to UN Member States for Contingent-Owned Equipment (COE) is established through the COE Working Group and UN legislative bodies. The details of this reimbursement at the contingent-specific level are included in the MOU, which is the primary financial reference for contingent logistics support (including support for the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit) for each specific peacekeeping Mission. Major equipment (if not in the COE Manual) may be treated as a “special case” if the situation requires. Maintenance of this special case equipment is a TCC responsibility if the equipment is under wet lease. See paragraph 4.8 18
All planned aviation-related activities, such as transportation by air (including medical and casualty evacuation), reconnaissance, selection of temporary helicopter landing sites, etc., must be coordinated with the Mission Aviation and Movement Control elements in order to meet specific requirements stipulated in the respective Aviation, Movement Control and Aviation Safety policies, manuals and SOPs. See also the DPKO Aviation Manual, 2005 for specific requirements to transport weapons on board UN-chartered aircraft.
below for an explanation of wet and dry leases. In accordance with the COE Manual, any special minor equipment or consumables not covered by the standard self-sustainment rates may be categorized as “unique equipment.” These items will be reimbursed according to bilateral special case arrangements between the troop/police contributor and the UN. 4.7.4 The Mission Support Plan is the basis for identifying resources that may be redeployed from other locations (e.g., the UN Global Service Centre or other field Missions) to support Mission deployment. Additionally, the Mission Support Plan may provide a basis for negotiations with potential TCCs on provision of COE that each individual troop contributor is required to bring to the Mission along with associated, applicable self-sustainment services. 4.7.5 Force Generation and Logistics Planning It is essential to coordinate the force generation process with logistics planning. This coordination currently occurs once troop contributors have been identified. At this point, any problems that troop contributors may face in equipping or supporting their contingents are identified and staffed for resolution at UN Headquarters. Problems are assessed based on a combination of the data given by the TCC and assessments carried out by DPKO and DFS personnel. The UN Department of Field Support recognizes that many Member States do not possess all of the equipment needed for a particular UN Mission and may therefore put in place mitigating logistical arrangements including the purchase of UNOE and/or “wet and dry leases” as necessary. 4.8 Wet and Dry Lease In order to ensure that units being offered by Member States come with the required capability, there are a number of options for the provision of major equipment and its support. These options come under the headings of “wet and dry lease” and the option chosen is directly linked to the rate of reimbursement. Full details are available in the COE Manual. 4.8.1 Wet Lease Under wet lease arrangements, a contingent deploys with its COE and is responsible for its maintenance and support. This arrangement can be achieved in one of two ways:
The troop contributor provides the vehicles and equipment, related minor equipment, workshop support, spares, and maintenance personnel. The troop contributor is reimbursed at set rates.
One troop contributor provides the major equipment and a second party, under a bilateral arrangement, provides the support. In this case, the troop contributor deployed to the Mission area and operating the equipment may be reimbursed by 38
the UN. The second party is reimbursed, if at all, through a bilateral arrangement without any UN involvement or responsibility. 4.8.2 Dry Lease Under dry lease arrangements, a contingent deploys with its COE but the UN arranges for its support. This arrangement can be achieved in a number of ways:
Under the first, the troop contributor provides the equipment and the UN takes responsibility for the support, provision of spare parts and maintenance. The troop contributor receives reimbursement at the dry lease rate.
The troop contributor provides the equipment and the UN arranges for another Member State to provide the support. The former receives reimbursement at the dry lease rate and the latter is reimbursed for maintenance and support.
The troop contributor provides the equipment, receives reimbursement at the dry lease rate and the UN provides the support via commercial contractor.
The UN provides the equipment and along with the support, provision of spare parts and maintenance.
4.9 Memoranda of Understanding The MOU is designed to cover reimbursement for (a) personnel costs, (b) major equipment and (c) self-sustainment costs. Under the MOU, liability is borne by the UN. The COE manual states that in the case of loss or damage of equipment due to hostile action or force abandonment, the UN is responsible for reimbursement to the Member State in cases where the loss or damage exceeds $250,000. Where the loss or damage is less than $250,000, the Member State assumes responsibility. 4.10 Letter of Assist Primary logistics support for a contingent comes from national military logistics sources under TCC control. Civilian contractors, arranged by the TCC, may also provide support. Major items of equipment may accompany deploying units, or the UN may provide them in the Mission area as mentioned above. The UN may also satisfy specific support requirements not already included under an MOU or available through commercial contract. These support requirements may be met by a contracting method known as a Letter of Assist (LOA), by which the UN acquires special supplies or services from a Member State. LOAs are used when:
A TCC deploys, rotates or repatriates its personnel and equipment using its own capacities.
A special need arises for essential equipment or services that are not available through normal sources of supply. 39
The items or services required by the Mission are not covered by an MOU.
A TCC contributes aircraft or vessels to a Mission.
4.11 Pre-Deployment Visits In view of the financial and operational significance of ensuring that contingents are correctly equipped, DPKO arranges to conduct Pre-Deployment Visits (PDVs)/inspections before deployment. PDVs are usually conducted once the troop contributor and UN Headquarters reach an MOU agreement. This MOU covers personnel, major equipment, self-sustainment and Mission factors, and is a contractual statement of what each of the respective parties will provide in these areas. 4.12 Status of Forces Agreement 4.12.1 From a logistical perspective, the Status-of-Forces Agreement (SOFA) specifies the terms of support provided by the host state to the UN Mission, as well as the legal rights of the UN Mission’s personnel and operations. DPKO, in coordination with DFS, is responsible for negotiating SOFAs with the host state. 4.12.2 SOFAs codify relations between the UN Mission and host state describing “the rights, privileges and immunities of the Mission and its personnel and the Mission's obligations to the host government.”19 SOFAs govern the legal status of troops and civilian personnel deployed to the Mission in the host state, and specify the legal immunity for UN personnel with regard to the settlement of claims, the modalities for the exercise of civil and criminal jurisdiction over military and civilian Mission members, as well as provisions relating to freedom of movement, taxes, customs, immigration controls, radio frequencies, flight clearances and permission to wear uniforms and carry weapons. 4.13 National Support Elements 4.13.1 With prior UN approval, Member States providing military and/or police personnel to UN Missions may augment those personnel with a National Support Element. Member States may choose to organize National Support Elements to provide their deployed contingents administrative and logistical services with national standards of support that may exceed or differ from the stated UN requirement. A National Support Element includes personnel and equipment in addition to those agreed to by the UN and Member State under the terms of the applicable MOU, and/or as described in the Statement of Unit or Force Requirement for the specific field Mission. 4.13.2 As this augmentation is over and above UN requirements, the UN offers no reimbursement or financial liability for National Support Element costs, deployment, rotation or self-sustainment. Nonetheless, for purposes of legal status, National Support 19
Handbook on United Nations Multidimensional Peacekeeping Operations, published by DPKO Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit, December 2003, p.13, can be found at Policy and Practice Database , accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx or “Resource Hub”, developed for Member States at http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community
Element personnel are considered part of the Member State’s military or police unit contingent. The total personnel strength of the National Support Element may be specified in the remarks of the applicable MOU between the UN and Member State, and shall be reasonably proportionate to the strength of the contingent.
Training for the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
5.1 Intent This Chapter is intended to assist UN Military/Combat Transport Unit commanders and planners in their efforts to prepare contingent personnel for UN peacekeeping. Training is a command responsibility and a continuous process. In UN field Missions, most military casualties result from inadequate training and failure to observe established SOPs. Commanders and supervisors therefore have an obligation to ensure their personnel and units are properly trained before and during deployment. Contingents thus trained will have an operational advantage upon arrival and when in the UN Mission. 5.2 National Sovereignty The UN fully recognizes national sovereignty with regard to the training of military personnel and units. National military training is the foundation upon which contingents can add and adapt UN standards—developed after decades of international peacekeeping experience. 5.3 UN Training Expectations, Standards and Support 5.3.1 UN Military/Combat Transport Units are normally composed of personnel from a single TCC, but may occasionally include elements from other TCCs. To promote effectiveness and interoperability, national military training is ideally within the parameters set by the UN as articulated in this Manual. Units and personnel designated to become part of UN Military/Combat Transport Units are expected to be thoroughly trained as they may conduct tasks in isolated areas far from other Force and Mission elements. 5.3.2 DPKO’s Integrated Training Service (ITS), part of the Policy, Evaluation and Training Division of DPKO at UN Headquarters, is developing Specialized Training Modules to provide detailed peacekeeping training materials for TCCs participating in UN operations. ITS provides the materials for Mission orientation training and has developed Mission-specific modules that can help transform and re-align military units to the tasks and challenges of peacekeeping operations. ITS is also responsible for providing peacekeeping training standards for all phases of training based on departmental priorities and policies, lessons learned and best practices. It disseminates these required standards to all peacekeeping training partners, including Member States and field Missions, with additional targeted support available from the Office of the 42
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on human rights standards and training. 5.3.3 Planners should take into consideration UN training requirements as they develop timelines for deployment and troop rotation so that units can receive the necessary training before they deploy. Upon arrival in the Mission area, the Force Headquarters is responsible for producing train-the-trainer courses for induction training conducted under contingent arrangements. Individual and especially collective contingent training should also focus on interaction with the different Mission elements, partners and other actors present in the area of operations. 5.4 Mission-Specific Training Requirements UN Military/Combat Transport Unit training should be based on Mission requirements contained in the Statement of Unit Requirement. Additionally, required communications and information technology training is provided by DFS’s Information, Communications and Technology Division. This training includes intensive system and UN standard equipment-specific training so that UN Military/Combat Transport Units can communicate with their higher headquarters and other Force/Mission elements. The Information, Communications and Technology Division of the Department of Field Support provides the framework for this unit training and preparation. 5.5 Common UN Training Requirements The UN Infantry Battalion Manual (UNIBAM) discusses common UN military unit training at length and should be studied by all units deploying for peacekeeping Missions.20 The overarching principles of UN peacekeeping described in that manual are applicable to all military units regardless of specialty. Skills that deserve special emphasis for contingents serving in UN field Missions (above and beyond basic military and specialist skills) include: military planning, the ability to integrate and orchestrate diverse sources of specialist personnel and equipment, language and communications skills (both oral and written), the development of a versatile and flexible mind-set, cultural awareness and sensitivity as well as familiarity with UN Military/Combat Transport procedures. Descriptions of generic UN peacekeeping training, including training phases such as Pre-Deployment Training, Induction Training, Ongoing or InMission Training (a command responsibility vital to ensuring the maintenance of operational effectiveness) and on-the-job training are covered in the UN Infantry Battalion Manual. Provided below is a consolidated list of UN training requirements that can be incorporated into pre-deployment and in-Mission training. Commanders and subordinate leaders should develop these training topics in greater detail to suit their needs.
The Infantry Battalion Manual, Volumes I and II, can be found at Policy and Practice Database , accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx or “Resource Hub”, developed for Member States at http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community.
5.6 Specific UN Training Requirements While military training may vary according to national goals and resources, there are specific additional training topics that must be covered when preparing to deploy to a UN peacekeeping Mission. Chapter 2 provides more detailed descriptions of the expected UN Military/Combat Transport Unit capabilities and tasks. Additional related training requirements of particular note for UN Military/Combat Transport Units include coverage of the following:
Mission Rules of Engagement.
United Nations standards of conduct, including prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse.
Protection of Civilians.
Human Rights and Due Diligence policy, roles and responsibilities.
Mission- and role-specific equipment, training and SOPs.
Mission-specific geographic and environmental conditions whose unique physical and operational characteristics present certain operating challenges.
Mission-specific guidance obtained from documents issued by DPKO’s Office of Military Affairs, such as the Statement of Unit Requirement and Guidelines to TCCs; the Integrated Training Service’s Pre-Deployment Information Packages; and field Mission documents such as the Force Commander’s Training Directive.
Observations resulting from reconnaissance by the incoming UN Military/Combat Transport Unit commander and staff to the Mission area.
Lessons learned from outgoing UN Military/Combat Transport Units.
Awareness of asymmetric threats, particularly counter-IED training.
Mandatory knowledge of UN-issued communications and information technology equipment.
5.7 Military Training Recommended for Emphasis 5.7.1 There are a number of subjects that TCCs should emphasize as they prepare their personnel and units for UN peacekeeping operations. Knowledge of the UN command and control structure as well as the expected Military/Combat Transport capabilities and tasks (as explained in this Manual) is essential. TCCs are encouraged to work with DPKO’s Integrated Training Service to develop classroom instruction and command post 44
exercises that will provide UN peacekeeping orientation that can then be added to TCCspecific military professional training. 5.7.2 Beyond mastering technical military requirements, UN Military/Combat Transport Unit leaders should be capable of working with other nationalities. Language training and Mission-specific cultural familiarization could be incorporated into the TCC’s longterm professional military curriculum, not just its pre-deployment training. Since English and French are the two languages most frequently required in UN Missions, it is highly desirable for UN Military/Combat Transport Unit seniors to be proficient (both orally and in writing) in the English and/or French language. Preparing key contingent members to communicate in English and/or French allows them to better integrate their unit into the overall Force and Mission.
Chapter 6 Evaluation of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit
6.1 The Purpose of Evaluations Evaluations are extremely useful to TCCs, their contingent commanders, UN planners and the Force leadership as they organize, train, equip, deploy and employ contributed military personnel. TCCs conduct their evaluations (reinforced by Force and Sector Headquarters evaluations) for the purpose of assessing and monitoring the state of individual and collective training, and to verify the level of equipment performance and maintenance. Above all, the purpose of formal evaluation is to assist TCCs and military contingents in meeting national and UN standards of operational performance. 6.2 Evaluation Criteria Evaluation of a military contingent’s operational performance is based on distinct criteria including Mission requirements, organizational structure, operational standards, the capability to perform mission essential tasks, standards achieved in training, as well as administrative and logistics standards. Evaluations should analyse task-oriented activities at each level within the military contingent to include individuals, task-oriented groups and commanders. The evaluation checklists at Annex D include broad peacekeeping evaluation criteria, as well as criteria that are more UN Military/Combat Transport Unit-specific. For a comprehensive set of UN evaluation checklists, see the Chapter on Peacekeeper Capability Standards in the UN Infantry Battalion Manual. 6.3 Conducting Evaluations Formal evaluations during mission rehearsals and exercises can be very beneficial. Evaluation criteria should be based on measurable and quantifiable standards that are specific, achievable, realistic and time-bound in nature. Evaluations may be conducted in a graduated manner by level (from individual soldiers to commanders) and activity (Crew, Section, Platoon, Company or Battalion) in a task-oriented manner to systematically build expertise and integrate capabilities for collective application. In addition to national training standards, further guidance on conducting evaluations is available in the sample evaluation checklists at Annex D, and the links and references provided throughout this Manual regarding UN policies, directives, SOPs and guidelines. Military units preparing for UN service, or already deployed in UN Missions, should undergo a combination of independent, pre-deployment and in-Mission evaluations.
6.4 Independent Evaluations TCCs can authoritatively determine how well their personnel, units and equipment are prepared for peacekeeping duties by conducting independent evaluations using special evaluation experts from national training centres and personnel with previous peacekeeping experience. The provision of adequate resources in terms of training areas, ammunition for live firing, classrooms and equipment oriented to the Mission environment will significantly improve preparation and evaluation exercises. Any gaps in capability can be corrected by TCC-appropriate action to make the necessary improvements. Additionally, the UN Force Headquarters conducts its own assessment of Force units when deployed. In this way, multiple evaluations contribute to higher states of operational readiness and performance. 6.5 Pre-Deployment Evaluations 6.5.1 A military contingent is expected to be well trained and qualified in basic military skills and conventional military tactics, techniques and procedures according to specific national military standards prior to concentrating on peacekeeping training. DPKO/DFSorganized Pre-Deployment Visits (PDVs) offer a level of independent evaluation prior to a contingent’s deployment to the Mission area. Pre-deployment evaluations by the TCC and DPKO/DFS may include validation of the contingent’s ability to:
Ensure timely assembly, grouping, and equipping of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit in accordance with the Statement of Unit Requirement and MOU.
Conduct Mission-specific, tasks/capabilities.
Identify shortcomings and take corrective measures for capability enhancement.
6.5.2 Prior to a DPKO/DFS PDV, a well-prepared UN Military/Combat Transport Unit will have undertaken the following activities:
Raising, equipping and establishing a UN Military/Combat Transport Unit in accordance with the Mission-specific UN Statement of Unit Requirement.
Training in accordance with standard UN Military/Combat Transport Unit tasks and operational demands. (See Chapter 2 for a detailed discussion of required UN Military/Combat Transport capabilities and tasks.)
Developing Mission-specific, task-oriented, individual and collective expertise and capabilities.
Identifying shortcomings, including the robustness of the required supply chain, and taking remedial action to improve capabilities.
Making timely adjustments and mid-course corrections.
Utilizing experienced trainers from other UN Military/Combat Transport Units to train the new UN Military/Combat Transport Unit awaiting deployment.
Final pre-deployment inspection and rehearsal of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit by national peacekeeping experts under TCC arrangements.
6.6 In-Mission Evaluations In-Mission evaluations should include:
Conducting the first in-Mission evaluation in the second month of deployment to validate and match the standards achieved prior to deployment. This can be followed by quarterly/half yearly evaluations in accordance with Mission norms.
Continuously and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing performance inMission by the military contingent command element and Mission leadership.
Identifying potential weak areas and instituting periodic selective evaluations to administer corrective actions.
Reassessing capabilities and skills when the Mission’s operational situation changes, or when there is a gap between requirements and performance.
Taking note of clearly visible performance capability gaps during critical times and adverse situations, and addressing them expeditiously.
Validating key appointments in command and staff channels to verify ability and responsibility, and provide guidance and support where required.
Hosting visiting TCC teams of military officials and peacekeeping experts who monitor and validate unit performance.
6.7 DPKO/DFS Assistance DPKO/DFS and the Mission leadership play a key role in guiding and facilitating TCC achievement of evaluation and operational readiness. In addition to this Manual, numerous other references (see Annex E) offer guidelines and standards by which UN Military/Combat Transport Units can evaluate operational readiness. DPKO/DFS promote evaluation, operational readiness and commitment to UN standards with a flexible and accommodative approach by:
Guiding, assisting, facilitating or supplementing TCC efforts in evaluation.
Providing an Operational Advisory Team from the Military Planning Service/Office of Military Affairs, DPKO to guide and assist emerging TCCs in their military operational planning and preparation (assistance on request for other TCCs).
Providing training assistance and material through the Integrated Training Service.
Providing the Mission and TCC strategic guidance and oversight by: o Conducting a DPKO/DFS pre-deployment visit (for initial deployments only) to verify that provisions of the Statement of Unit Requirement/MOU are met and the contingent is ready for deployment. o Guiding and assisting emerging TCCs (and other TCCs on request), focussing on basic military training, output requirements and technology-related issues.
6.8 Mission Leadership Assistance The Mission leadership supports evaluation by coordinating and providing the following assistance:
Informing TCCs of performance goals for the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit’s pre-deployment preparation requirements and Mission-oriented task requirements.
Coordinating pre-deployment reconnaissance, organizes in-Mission induction training, provides train-the-trainer courses (a Force Headquarters responsibility), providing Mission logistics support and defining unambiguous operational tasks, roles and responsibilities for the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit that provide a basis for evaluation.
Carrying out in-Mission operational performance and capability evaluation of the contingent. Providing and coordinating the required resources and staff to conduct evaluations and centralized, technical on-the-job training to strengthen evaluated shortfalls.
Guiding and supporting TCCs and UN Military/Combat Transport Units to improve shortfalls, adopt mid-course corrections and take action with the Mission command and staff on evaluation findings.
Developing a Mission Training Plan and overseeing the required training to improve the evaluated operational readiness.
Providing Performance Evaluation Forms (PEFs) for commanders.
6.9 Collective Responsibilities TCCs are encouraged to modify and formalize the evaluation methodology, criteria and procedures presented herein to suit their needs in conducting evaluations. The development and use of detailed standards and checklists, focusing on peacekeeping and UN Military/Combat Transport Unit preparedness, will yield great benefits in terms of operational readiness and early identification of unit capabilities that need improvement. Early identification allows personnel or equipment shortfalls to be addressed before they cause problems. TCCs that lack the financial or technical ability to support their deploying units with the resources needed to meet national or UN standards should immediately seek to discuss their needs with DPKO/DFS at UN Headquarters.
UN Military/Combat Transport and Logistics Operations Planning and Implementation Principles For specific guidance on surface transport management and planning, readers should consult the DPKO-DFS Manual on Surface Transport Management in the Field,21 published in February 2014. That document provides authoritative guidance on:
Appropriate use of UN vehicles Individuals authorized to travel in UN vehicles Driving tests Missing, lost or stolen UN driver’s permits Vehicle accidents Painting and marking of UN vehicles
Helpful guidance on surface transport safety management is available in the DPKO-DFS Manual on Road Safety Management in the Field,22 published in December 2013. Along with other helpful information, that document provides practical details on:
UN standards of driving Driver training Vehicle safety and security UN speed limits
1.8.3 UN Military/Combat Transport Unit planning, accomplished within the Supply Chain Management planning structure, should be centralized, comprehensive, tailorable (modular), flexible (scalable) and continuous. Common to all aspects of UN Missions are the requirements for mobility and the interoperability of multinational efforts. Transport and logistics operations for all Missions have common principles for planning and implementation:
The UN and the Troop Contributing Countries have a collective responsibility to ensure that forces deployed on any UN operation are fully equipped and supported. This may be achieved through national or cooperative arrangements and must be clearly agreed upon prior to deployment. Member states and the UN each share responsibility for the care, custody and safeguarding of UN personnel and equipment (as does the host nation). 21
Available at “Policy and Practice Database,” accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at: http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx ,or, "Resource Hub," recently developed for Member States to access UN documents including the Military Unit Manuals (such as this one) at: http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community. 22 Same as footnote 11 above.
The administrative planning for any Mission begins well before the commencement of an operation. This includes first identifying resources within or close to the deployment area and obtaining information regarding the infrastructure of the sites concerned. Consideration must be given to any special on-site requirements such as clothing, munitions, accommodation and mobility. Planning for deployment should begin at the earliest opportunity.
Flexibility in transport and logistics means the ability to adjust operational, transport and logistics plans (that will almost inevitably be subject to frequent changes, particularly in the early stages of an operation). In conditions where lines of communication are subject to disruption, it may be necessary to deviate from pre-set methods and modify standard operating procedures to meet unexpected demands.
In any Mission, resources are rarely plentiful and must be used effectively, efficiently and economically. Early integration of all available assets provided by the contributing member states should be a main goal. When possible, this integration must be planned prior to deployment to avoid duplication of resources at the Mission site.
The simpler the transport and logistics plan, the easier it is to understand. The greater the understanding of the plan, the more effective cooperation will be between contributing nations, enhancing the speed with which an original plan can be adapted to meet changing circumstances.
Cooperation will always be the key to producing a workable UN Mission transport and logistics structure. Levels and standards of support differ by nations. Almost always, there are a variety of nationalities involved with different languages, cultural requirements and capabilities. Cooperation is essential in order to achieve a workable transport and logistics solution.
The levels and distribution of transport/logistical resources must be sufficient to meet the sustainability and mobility needs of the operational plan. Stock levels should take into account the expected nature and duration of the mission, consumption pattern and lead time for resupply shipments.
Accurate accounts must be kept for all assets that are purchased and issued to contingents for the support of a mission. This includes any equipment classified as Contingent-Owned Equipment.
Transport and logistics equipment is vital to any operation and represent a large monetary investment. It is important that a full audit trail be maintained for all equipment dispatched to, in and from the Mission site. In the UN, this audit trail is achieved using a number of methods ranging from barcode and satellite tracking to basic card systems.
Interoperability o From its commander’s perspective, the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit’s employment concept must take into account not only the Mission’s command and control and planning processes, but also the numerous external and internal transport and logistics stakeholders affecting the Mission. Constant coordination with each of these stakeholders is essential. o Interoperability is the capacity to cooperate and function together successfully with units from other Mission Troop Contributing Countries and/or organizations. For UN Military/Combat Transport Units, transport and logistics interoperability can be achieved in various ways to obtain different levels of cooperation and mutual reinforcement. At its lowest level, a degree of interoperability is achieved by developing a shared understanding of doctrine and procedures, supplemented by effective communication links between commanders and staffs so that separate taskings can be coordinated. o More advanced transport and logistics cooperation involves a wider range of communication links, as well as agreed operational doctrine, procedures and protocol. Better interoperability and cooperation for UN Military/Combat Transport Units requires common or compatible systems and platforms, shared transport and logistics capabilities and, at the highest level, completely integrated forces sharing compatible equipment, communications and practices.
Key Mission Leaders and Sections
Head of Mission The Head of Mission (HOM) in a peacekeeping operation is the Mission’s senior UN representative. The HOM reports to the Secretary-General through the UnderSecretary-General of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The HOM has overall authority over the activities of the UN in the Mission area and is typically designated a Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), leading UN political engagement and speaking on behalf of the UN within the Mission area. The HOM leads and directs the heads of all Mission components and ensures unity of effort and coherence among UN entities in the Mission area. The HOM provides political guidance for mandate implementation and sets Mission-wide operational direction, including taking decisions on resource allocation in the event of competing priorities. The HOM delegates the operational and technical aspects of mandate implementation to the heads of Mission components.
Head of Military Component/Force Commander The Head of Military Component (HOMC)/Force Commander reports to the Head of Mission. The HOMC establishes the military operational chain of command in the field, exercises OPCON over all military personnel in the Mission and places military units under the Tactical Control (TACON) of military commanders in the operational chain of command. The HOMC maintains technical reporting and communications links with the Military Adviser in the Office of Military Affairs, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) at UN Headquarters. This technical reporting link does not substitute for, nor circumvent, the chain of command between the Under-SecretaryGeneral, DPKO and the Head of Mission, nor does it interfere with decisions taken by the Head of Mission. With regard to routine tasking of enabling units like the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit, Mission-level tasking is transmitted through Director or Chief of Mission Support channels, but OPCON and responsibility for the specifics of how the Military Component will execute the tasking remain with the HOMC/Force Commander.
Director or Chief of Mission Support The Director or Chief of Mission Support (D/CMS) is appointed by the UnderSecretary-General for Field Support at UN Headquarters and leads the Mission’s Support Division. The D/CMS reports to the Head of Mission (HOM) and is accountable to the HOM for the efficient and effective provision of administrative and logistic support (including transport) to all Mission components. The D/CMS has sole UN authority in the field to commit UN financial resources for any purpose, including any contractual arrangements for the use of local resources, and is accountable for UN-owned assets, property and financial transactions made by the Mission on behalf of the UN. The D/CMS exercises his/her financial authority in consultation with the HOM. The D/CMS is responsible for the strict observance of, and compliance with, UN technical and administrative regulations related to the administration of the Mission and transport and logistics management, and advises the HOM on the rules and regulations governing the commitment of UN financial resources to ensure the provision of efficient and effective administrative and transport/logistical support to all Mission components. All financial delegations within a Mission area are under the sole responsibility and authority of the D/CMS. As such, the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit commander has no direct financial authority (other than own national funds, where assigned). The D/CMS carries out his/her functions through two principal staff officers: the Chief of Service Delivery (CSD) and the Chief of Supply Chain Management (CSCM). While the CSD is responsible for technical service delivery functions under the Support Component, the CSCM manages supply chain management functions including the day-to-day transport and logistics component of the Mission.
Chief of Supply Chain Management23 The Chief of Supply Chain Management is an expert in UN supply chain management. He/she is responsible for providing transport and logistics support to all Mission components according to the priorities established by the senior Mission management. The Chief of Supply Chain Management reports to the DMS/CMS in large Missions. For small Missions, the function of supply chain management and service delivery are combined under one chief. The Chief of Supply Chain Management manages all transport and logistics resources in the Mission to include:
Acquisition planning Procurement Integrated warehousing and property management/COE, Movement control and distribution (including surface transportation provided by UN-owned, commercially contracted and military enabling units).
This title reflects the most recent DFS changes in Mission support structure.
Mission Support Centre The Mission Support Centre is the nerve centre and focal point for coordination across mission support components with other mission components (e.g Force, Police and Substantive). The Mission Support Centre draws its authority from the D/CMS. The Chief of the Mission Support Centre serves as an advisor to D/CMS in such areas as planning, coordination, monitoring including providing feedback on transport and logistics tasks. All Mission Support Centre instructions carry the D/CMS authority for coordination and execution of approved plans.
Generic Tables of Equipment for Battalion- and Company-Size UN Military/Combat Transport Units
Important Note: The following three examples of UN Military Transport Unit equipment requirements are provided for illustrative purposes only. Of particular interest are the different types and quantities of equipment required in various sizes of UN Military Transport Units with nearly identical tasks, but in different Missions. Only careful transport and logistical planning, taking into consideration the threat, terrain and other Mission factors, will determine the type and quantity of equipment appropriate for any given Mission. These tables were developed from previous Statements of Unit Requirement and are unique to the Missions for which they were created. Specific planning for equipment types and quantities in other Missions should be based on Mission requirements, the guidance in this Manual and consultations with TCCs, not necessarily the tables in this Annex.
Table of Equipment Example 1 Battalion-Size (585-Person) UN Combat Transport Unit Table 1 – Major Equipment Item Personnel Strength ceiling
With Military radio, Mine protected Fully equipped, Mine protected, 4 with Bomb arm, Fully equipped, Mine protected, 4 for mine roller Mine protected Mine protected
Support Vehicles (Military Pattern) Ambulance Jeep 4x4
For Level 1 Medical Facility
Truck, utility/cargo (6-10 tons) Armoured Truck, maintenance medium Armoured Truck, water (over 5,000 litres and up to 10,000 litres) - Armoured Truck, tanker (over 5,000 litres and up to 10,000 litres) - Armoured Truck, tanker (over 10,000 litres) Armoured Truck, tanker (over 5,000 and up to 10,000 litres) - Armoured
With hinged sides and tailgates. Capable of troop, cargo or standard 20ft ISO Containers, up to 20MT payload (must be capable of securing containers). 20% should have collapsible crane (see also note 1) Closed mobile workshops truck (or as required for self-contained unit vehicle maintenance)
For Diesel and Jet A1 fuel
For Diesel fuel
Truck, recovery (greater than 20 tons) - Armoured
Truck, tractor (up to 40 tons tow)
With pump and flow meter. Capable of transporting ground fuel (diesel) for support during medium/long-haul convoy operations. For recovery support during medium/long-haul convoy operations capable of recovering all unit assets, including loaded heavy cargo trucks and tractors with loaded semi-trailers. Truck tractor 6x6; (for flat/low-bed trailers). (See note 1)
Trailers Flatbed/lowbed over 20 tons
(See also Truck tractor up to 40 ton tow and Note 1)
Roller for APC; special case
6 4 2
Capable of lifting fully loaded 20ft ISO container (up to 10 MT).
Combat Engineer equipment Vehicle mounted ECM Man portable ECM Hand held GPR Hand held cable detector Large loop detector Comprehensive hook and line kit Reconnaissance drone Spotting scope Digital camera set Handheld metal detector Search tool kit ETB
12 32 64 32 16 16 16 32 16 64 16 16
Electronic Equipment / Instrument Miniature UAS
Demining and EOD equipment Remote control bomb disposal equipment Vehicle mounted ECM Man portable ECM Portable handheld searchlight Forensic evidence collection kit EOD suit and helmet EOD suit gloves EOD communication system Cooling system Comprehensive hook and line kit Vehicle access kit Light weight IEDD tripod Real time portable x-ray system Medium disruptor including stand and ammo 200 rounds Large disrupter/disarmer including stand and ammo 200 rounds Needle (small) disrupter with stand and ammo 200 rounds Firing system (shrike or similar) Firing cables 500m on reel Spotting scope Digital camera set Mine/metal detector Handheld metal detector Cable locator
Water treatment plant, up to 2,000 lph, storage up to 5,000 litres
The treated water must meet the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (see Appendix 2). All water treatment plant should be battalion-scale plant and should be no less than 1,000 litres per hour. Smaller plant cannot be considered operational. All plant should be capable of providing drinking water to WHO standards in safe drinking water. TCC need to select water treatment plants that meet specifications set by the Mission for the treatment process of raw water conditions at designated locations. The minimum requirement in every location for the treatment process is sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. Where the raw water is salty (that is, TDS > 1,000) water treatment plants should include a reverse osmosis process. Where specifications are not met, the equipment cannot be used or considered to be available. Contingents should include skilled operators for the plant. TCC should provide all water treatment chemicals. The inspection and testing of water treatment plants should be specifically included in all pre-deployment visits and arrival inspections.
Static water tanks are for bulk storage and need to be separate from other storage associated with water purification, transportation and day-to-day consumption. TCC need to select sufficient static water tanks for two days storage of treated water at minimum of 170 litres per person. All static water tanks are to be made only with food accepted materials.
Generators are to be used in pairs of same size to provide 100% backup. The generators need to include control equipment for stabilizing power within specified tolerances and synchronizing parallel running. TCC need to select generator sizes to match specific loads and limit decentralized electrical generation to match operational dispersed deployment and medical backup requirements.
Water storage 10,001-12,000 litres
Electrical – Generators – Stationary and Mobile
Generator 101-150 kva
Medical and dental Equipment Level 1 Medical Facility 1 Notes: (1) Heavy cargo trucks preferably with PLS / CBH (self-loading) type vehicles.
Table 1 – Major Equipment Self-Sustainment Item Catering Field kitchen
Kitchen facilities and equipment, including supplies, Consumables, dishes and cutlery. Communication HF Telephone VHF/UHF - FM Office General
Responsibility Total TCC 1 set
TCC TCC TCC
2 7 20
Remarks Number based on requirement for multiple deployment sites Adequate for all personnel.
HF Radios Telephones VHF/ UHF Radios
Office furniture, equipment and supplies. Adequate for all unit headquarters staff
Electrical harnesses, wiring, circuitry and lighting sets.
Minor Engineering General
Workshop equipment, construction tools and supplies.
Equipment and qualified personnel
Laundry General Cleaning General Fire Fighting Basic firefighting Fire detection and alarm
Medical Basic Level – Personal medical and hygiene supplies High risk epidemiological
Level 1 Medical Facility
Firefighting equipment TCC in temporary/UN in hard wall accommodation As indicated in COE Manual Ch 3 Annex B As indicated in COE Manual Ch. 3 Annex B
Observation General Night Observation Positioning Identification General NBC Protection General Field Defence Stores General Miscellaneous General Stores Bedding – Bed linen, blankets, mattress covers, pillows, and towels. Furniture – Bed, mattress, locker for each person and other appropriate furniture to provide an adequate living space. Welfare – Appropriate levels of equipment and amenities for the morale and well-being of troops. Internet Access
TCC TCC TCC TCC
12 12 8
Binoculars Night Vision Devices GPS Man Portable
Digital Camera Video Camera
Clothing and equipment
Adequate for all personnel Adequate for all personnel
Adequate for all personnel
Internet access for all personnel
Table of Equipment Example 2 Company-Size (250-Person) UN Military Transport Unit Table 2 – Major Equipment COMPANY EQUIPMENT LIST Serial Personal weapons 1 Rifle
2 Pistols Containers 3
Welfare- to include Internet, Satellite TV, sporting equipment etc Camp unit tent ( 35 personnel)
set Basic fire fighting
Bedding and furniture Refrigeration/freezer/food storage
Communications 13 HF (up to 250 Km) 14 15
VHF (Hand Held) Multiple channels Radios(up to 35 Km) Telephones
Satellite and Cell Phones
Twenty (20) ft ISO containers. However, the exact number should be coordinated during the MOU negotiation
The level I Facility should include two (02) doctors to allow the creation of two medical teams.
Fire detection and alarm 9
Level I Facility
Self-Sustainment 4 GPS Man Portable
For the company when deployed in a green field. Sufficient for each accommodation, office, Ablution and storage areas Sufficient for the company locations. Sufficient for the company.
With back up
50 40 10 each
This will complement the ones to be issued by the UN. 63
for unit self-sufficiency and convoy support with qty 2 x 20' ISO Container modules with locking mechanism and preferably with loading capacity (PLS trucks) . with qty 2 x 20' ISO Container modules with locking mechanism and preferably with loading capacity (PLS trucks). . Coupled with low bed trailer
convoy escort and support
Jeep (4x4)/Truck (1.5-2.4 tones) with military radio Truck maintenance light
Truck maintenance medium
Truck water (over 5000 and up to 10000 liters) Truck recovery 10T
For unit self-sufficiency and convoy support For unit self-sufficiency and convoy support for unit self-sufficiency
Truck recovery 20T
Truck refrigerator (under 20 feet)
For unit self-sufficiency and convoy support For unit self-sufficiency and convoy support For unit self-sufficiency 64
description Truck, tanker (up to 5,000 litres)
remarks For unit self-sufficiency
Truck, Sewage, Medium
For unit self-sufficiency
For unit self-sufficiency
Low bed, 40T
For oversized vehicle/cargo movement and capable of handling a 40' ISO container should the need arise. For unit self-sufficiency
Trailer, Fuel, 2000L
For unit self-sufficiency
Material Handling 42
Forklift, rough terrain (7T)
Forklift, rough terrain (15T)
Crane, Mobile, 30T+
Heavy lift and recovery support
Should be able to serve catering in three locations
Catering 45 Field Kitchen Engineering Equipment 46
Water treatment plant- Reverse Osmosis, water purification unit (ROWPU or equivalent), over 2,000 litres (L) per hour (lph), storage up to 5,000 L with equipment, tanks and bladder. Water storage Equipment
Water storage 5,000- 7,000 liters
Water storage 7,001- 10,000 liters
Welding, carpentry, masonry, plumbing and vertical construction tools
At least one (1) kit set for necessary light engineering works.
Logistic Equipment 50
Fuel storage 501- 5,000 liters
Electrical – Generators – Stationary and Mobile 51
Generator 20-30 KVA, Mobile on board and /or towed
Serial 52 53
description Generators 151-200 KVA 76-100 KVA
total 6 1
Table of Equipment Example 3 Company-Size (130-Person) UN Military Transport Unit Description
Serial Containers 1
Self-Sustainment 2 GPS Man Portable 3
Ten (10) ft ISO containers. The number should be coordinated during the MOU negotiation 10 1
Level I Facility
Welfare- to include Internet, Satellite TV, sporting equipment etc Tents for deployable platoon, 35 personnel
Fire detection and alarm
set Basic fire fighting
Bedding and furniture Refrigeration/freezer/food storage
Communications 11 HF (up to 250 Km) 12 13
VHF Multiple channels Radios(up to 35 Km) Telephones
Satellite and Cell Phones
Telephone Exchange PABX (48-100 lines)
The level I Facility should include three (3) doctors to allow the contingent to deploy to three (3) locations.
For the company when deployed in a green field. Sufficient for each accommodation, office, Ablution and storage areas Sufficient for the company locations. Sufficient for the company.
With back up
110 40 30 each
This will complement the ones to be issued by the UN.
Armament 16 Anti-tank Grenade Launcher (light 6080mm) 17 Crew Served Machine Gun 11 – 15 mm
Crew Served Machine Gun (up to 10 mm)
Medium Machine Gun With Day & Night Sight Vehicle Mounted
Accommodation Equipment 19
Camp unit tent (35 persons)
Tents for deployable squad, 8-10 personnel
Office, communications and command post tents Ablutions facilities (50 persons)
For deployment in temporary locations
Containers 23 Ammunition storage container 1 Support Vehicles (Military pattern) and/or Commercial pattern Heavy Vehicle. 24 Truck, Heavy, 6X6
Truck, Tractor, 6X6
Truck recovery 20T
Medium Vehicle. 28 Truck, Medium, 4X4
with qty 2 x 20' ISO Conatiner modules, preferably with loading mechanism. For carrying of troops Coupled with low bed trailer For unit self-sufficiency and convoy support
with qty 2 x 20' ISO Container modules with loading mechanism. For unit self-sufficiency and convoy support for unit self-sufficiency
Truck maintenance medium
Truck water (over 5000 and up to 10000 liters) Truck recovery 10T
Truck, Sewage, Medium
For unit self-sufficiency and convoy support For unit self-sufficiency
For unit self-sufficiency
Light Vehicle. 34 Ambulance (4x4)
for unit self-sufficiency and convoy support For carrying of troops
Jeep (4x4)/Truck (1.5-2.4 tones) with military radio Truck maintenance light
Truck refrigerator (under 20 feet)
convoy escort and support For unit self-sufficiency and convoy support For unit self-sufficiency
Truck, tanker (up to 5,000 litres)
For unit self-sufficiency
Low bed, 40T
For oversized vehicle/cargo movement and capable of handling a 40' ISO container should the need arise. For unit self-sufficiency
Trailer, Fuel, 2000L
For unit self-sufficiency
Material Handling 43
Forklift, rough terrain (5T)
Forklift, rough terrain (10T)
Crane, Mobile, 30T+
Heavy lift and recovery support
Engineering Equipment 47
Water treatment plant- Reverse Osmosis, water purification unit (ROWPU or equivalent), over 2,000 litres (L) per hour (lph), storage up to 5,000 L with equipment, tanks and bladder. Water storage Equipment
Water storage 5,000- 7,000 liters
Water storage 7,001- 10,000 liters
Welding, carpentry, masonry, plumbing and vertical construction tools
Two per company and BHQ Two per company and BHQ At least one (1) kit set for necessary light 69
remarks engineering works.
Logistic Equipment 51
Fuel storage 501- 5,000 liters
Electrical – Generators – Stationary and Mobile 52
Generator 20-30 KVA, Mobile on board and /or towed Generators 151-200 KVA
6 as reserve
Evaluation Checklists A UN Military/Combat Transport Unit’s operational readiness is evaluated based on distinct criteria like organizational structure, operational standards, the capability to perform Mission essential tasks, standards achieved in training as well as administrative and logistic standards. This evaluation addresses different levels within the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit to include individuals, task-oriented groups and commanders, thus analyzing task-oriented activities at each level.
Pre-Deployment Evaluation Serial
Generic Peacekeeping Skills. Are all personnel of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit trained on and sensitized to the generic UN policy guidelines and directives of conducting peacekeeping operations? Do they demonstrate a clear understanding of these guidelines and directives?
Mission-Specific Peacekeeping Skills. Are all personnel of the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit trained, equipped and organized to perform Mission essential tasks as per peacekeeping norms? Is the unit capable of performing in line with Mission mandate(s)?
Basic/Conventional Skills. Is the unit trained in basic infantry skills like firing personal weapons and minor tactics in accordance with national standards?
Physical and Mental Robustness. Is the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit physically and mentally robust enough to be deployed to the harsh conditions of the field Mission?
Core Capabilities. Is the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit able to perform its core capabilities based on unit organization, tasks assigned and type of Mission?
Organization. Is the unit organized into task-oriented groups with support structure as per the Mission organization?
Leadership. Is the unit chain of command capable, responsive and accountable for delivering in a
peacekeeping environment? h
Command and Staff. Is the unit command and staff integrated, trained and capable of planning, organizing, coordinating and directing the multifaceted operational and administrative tasks in the peacekeeping environment?
Training. Has the UN Military/Combat Transport Unit undertaken peacekeeping-oriented and Missionspecific training, and achieved the requisite standards?
Resources. Is the unit carrying or in possession of the required number of personnel, arms, ammunition, equipment, accessories, spares, unit stores and expendables as per MOU and Mission requirements?
Equipment Maintenance/Management. Does the unit maintain a minimum serviceability state of 90 percent and does it have the necessary preventive maintenance and repair/recovery in situ?
Weapons, Instruments and Vehicles. Are all weapons zeroed, instruments calibrated, vehicles maintained and inspected and certified for correctness and functionality as per required standards.
Logistics. In case of deployment at more than one location, are the COBs configured for independent and self-sustained logistics capability (food, water, accommodation, hygiene and sanitation, transport, and medical)?
Medical. Do all personnel meet the requisite medical standards? Have they been inoculated as per Mission requirements and have they cleared the periodic medical examination? Does the unit have a fully operational medical facility (medical level 1) in accordance with the MOU?
Integrity. Are all unit personnel aware of applicable UN rules, regulations and code of conduct, and have they demonstrated high standards of professionalism and integrity?
Morale and Motivation. Are all unit personnel well motivated to operate in a complex, restrictive, multinational and multidimensional environment while maintaining high morale?
Welfare. Does the unit maintain high standards of 72
personnel welfare as per national standards and Mission requirements? r
Legal. Do unit personnel and commanders clearly understand the responsibility to adhere to, promote and protect the legal framework for UN peacekeeping operations with specific reference to SOFA/SOMA, ROE, Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, other relevant international legal statutes and the host nation law?
Evaluation. Has the unit carried out a formal selfevaluation? Have shortcomings been rectified? Have TCC authorities certified the unit to be fit for deployment to the Mission on time?
In-Mission Evaluation Serial
Performance. Does the unit plan and perform all Mission essential tasks effectively and safely as per Mission mandate(s), peacekeeping norms and Mission SOPs?
Shortcomings. Has the unit taken corrective action on shortcomings in performance or resources observed by the unit, COE team or Mission leadership?
On-The-Job Training. Does the chain of command institute measures for on-the-job training of all personnel (based on their basic job categories) to maintain qualification standards?
In-Mission Training. Is the unit carrying out periodic in-Mission refresher, task-oriented and Mission-specific training as per IMTC guidelines?
Serviceability. Is the unit carrying out periodic inspection, preventive maintenance and repairs on time and replacing items that are unserviceable?
Conduct and Discipline. Does the unit continue to maintain high standards of conduct and discipline in all ranks?
Outreach and Engagement. Has the unit been able to (where relevant) establish good rapport and effective interface with the local population through CIMIC, Quick Impact Projects and welfare activities?
References General References Following documents can be found at Policy and Practice Database , accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx or “Resource Hub”, developed for Member States at http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community
United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, Principles and Guidelines (UN Capstone Doctrine) (2008)
United Nations Infantry Battalion Manual (August 2012)
United Nations Security Management System, Security Policy Manual (8 April 2011)
UN Force Link The Online Strategic Movements and Force Generation Knowledge Center
Generic Guidelines for Troop Contributing Countries Deploying Military Units to the United Nations Peacekeeping Missions
UN standards of conduct and discipline, as specified in the revised model Memorandum of Understanding between the UN and TCC , General Assembly document (A/61/19/Part III). This text is also incorporated in the COE Manual. The General Assembly document A/61/19/Part III is available over the internet at: http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=A/61/19%20(PartIII)
Conduct and Discipline training guidelines, Unit 4, Part 1, in the Core Pre-deployment Training Materials available to TCCs and PCCs from the public Peacekeeping Resources Hub Manual on Policies and Procedures Concerning the Reimbursement and Control of Contingent-Owned Equipment of Troop/Police Contributors Participating in Peacekeeping Missions (COE Manual) Medical Support Manual for UN PKO UN Integrated Assessment and Planning Handbook UN PKO Planning Toolkit, 2012 DPKO-DFS Manual on Surface Transport Management in the Field, February 2014 DPKO-DFS Manual on Road Safety Management in the Field, December 2013
Training References The following list of training references will be of great value to UN military unit commanders and their staff. These documents provide better understanding of the peacekeeping training system, its participants’ roles and responsibilities, and available resources. These and other important peacekeeping documents can be found at Policy and Practice Database , accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx or “Resource Hub”, developed for Member States at http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-communityPolicy on Training for all UN Peacekeeping Personnel (2010)
Policy on Support to Military and Police Pre-Deployment Training for UN Peacekeeping Operations (2009) Guidelines on Roles and Training Standards for UN Military Staff Officers (2009) SOP on Mobile Training Support Team (2009) SOP on Training Recognition (2009) SOP on Training-of-Trainers Courses (2009) Pre-Deployment Information Packages (PIP) UN Training Support to Member States
Evaluation References In addition to this Manual, the following UN peacekeeping documents provide guidelines and standards by which UN military units can evaluate their operational readiness. The following documents can be found at Policy and Practice Database , accessible only to UN staff on the UN network (including field Missions) at http://ppdb.un.org/Nav%20Pages/PolicyFramework_Default.aspx or “Resource Hub”, developed for Member States at http://research.un.org/en/peacekeeping-community : or, through the Office of the Military Advisor, DPKO at UN Headquarters:
Troop Contributing Country-specific UN peacekeeping operations Manuals, guidelines and standard operating procedures.
Mission mandate, memoranda of understanding, status of forces agreement and Rules of Engagement and Troop Contributing Country Guidelines.
Statement of Unit Requirement issued by the UN Office of Military Affairs, DPKO.
Mission Concept of Operations, operational directives and orders, Operational Plans, Standard Operating Procedures and Mission-specific case studies.
Generic Guidelines for Troop-Contributing Countries Deploying Military Units (2012), the COE Manual 2011 and Guidelines on Peacekeeping Training (2011).
Lessons learned and best practices of current and past peacekeeping Missions.
Information obtained during the military unit’s command group reconnaissance visit and feedback from the unit being relieved.
After action reports and end of assignment reports of units and previous commanders.